JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
January 2019
E-N04

Signalment (Slide A, JPC #2820685):  An old military working dog.

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Thyroid gland:  Expanding 50% of the submitted section of the thyroid gland and compressing atrophic follicles is a 6 mm diameter, encapsulated, well-circumscribed, moderately-cellular neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in variably-sized follicles filled with pale eosinophilic homogenous material (colloid), nests, packets and papillary projections supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma which extend in a central cystic space.  Neoplastic cells are cuboidal to low columnar, have distinct cell borders, a moderate amount of eosinophilic microvacuolated cytoplasm, one round nucleus with finely-stippled chromatin and one indistinct nucleolus.  The mitotic count is 1 per 10 hpf.  Multifocally, neoplastic cells contain a single, clear to pale eosinophilic intracytoplasmic vacuole (incipient follicle).  Multifocally within the neoplasm and capsule are basophilic mineralized concretions (corpora amylacea-like bodies).  Scattered throughout the neoplasm are low numbers of secretory-product laden macrophages.  The central cystic space contains a moderate amount of secretory product, numerous sloughed neoplastic cells and fewer macrophages. 

Prostate gland:  Diffusely, there is severe glandular atrophy with an increase in fibrous connective tissue and mature fibroblasts that separate and surround atrophic glands (post-castration atrophy).

Parathyroid gland; kidney:  No significant findings.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Thyroid gland:  Follicular adenoma, breed unspecified, canine.

Signalment (Slide B, JPC #2765024):  13-year-old-male English springer spaniel

HISTORY:  This dog had a mass in the ventral neck.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Thyroid gland (per contributor):  Effacing and replacing 100% of the normal thyroid gland and infiltrating through the pre-existing capsule is an poorly-circumscribed, unencapsulated, multilobulated, moderately-cellular neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in poorly-formed, variably-sized follicles filled with pale eosinophilic homogenous material (colloid), nests, packets and solidly-cellular areas supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma.  Neoplastic cells have indistinct cell borders, a moderate amount of eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm, one irregularly round to ovoid nucleus with finely-stippled chromatin and one to two distinct nucleoli.  There is moderate anisokaryosis and anisocytosis with occasional karyomegaly and cytomegaly.  The mitotic count is 5 per 10 hpf.  There are few multinucleated neoplastic cells.  Multifocally, neoplastic cells contain a single, clear to pale eosinophilic intracytoplasmic vacuole (incipient follicle).  Multifocally there are neoplastic emboli within blood vessels (vascular invasion).  There is a 3 cm area of coagulative necrosis, characterized by retention of cellular architecture and loss of differential stain, mixed with proteinaceous fluid, fibrin, hemorrhage, numerous acicular cholesterol cleft and few hemosiderin-laden macrophages.  Adjacent to the area of necrosis is mineralized bony trabeculae with bone marrow formation (osseous metaplasia).  There is multifocal fibrosis.  Scattered throughout the neoplasm are low numbers of neutrophils, hemosiderin-laden and secretory-product laden macrophages.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Thyroid gland (per contributor):  Follicular carcinoma, English springer spaniel, canine.

Signalment (Slide C, JPC #08-8529):  8-year-old spayed female boxer

HISTORY:  This dog had a subcutaneous, fluid-filled sac in the ventral neck for one week.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:    Ventral neck (per contributor):  Extending to all submitted margins is a encapsulated, cystic, moderately-cellular neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in papillae lined by simple columnar to stratified columnar epithelium and supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma.  Neoplastic cells have distinct cell borders, abundant pale eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm which contains numerous yellow-green granules, one round basilar nucleus, finely-stippled chromatin and one indistinct nucleolus.  There is mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, with occasional karyomegaly and cytomegaly.  The mitotic count is 1 per 10 hpf.  There is hemorrhage within and at the periphery of the neoplasm.  Multifocally, neoplastic cells form variably-sized follicles filled with pale eosinophilic homogeneous material (colloid).  At the periphery of the neoplasm within the wall are multiple sheets of thyroid follicular cells with minimal colloid and numerous compressed, atrophic thyroid follicles and hemorrhage.  The capsule is infiltrated by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and histiocytes.

MORPHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Ventral neck (per contributor):  Papillary carcinoma (thyroglossal duct tumor), boxer, canine.  

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Almes KM, Heaney AM, Andrews GA. Intracardiac ectopic thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog. Vet Pathol. 2008;45(4):500-504.
  2. Bakthavatchalu V, Muthupalani S, Marini RP, Fox JG. Endocrinopathy and aging in ferrets. Vet Pathol. 2016;53(2):349-365.
  3. Benjamin SA, Stephens LC, Hamilton BF, et al. Associations between lymphocytic thyroiditis, hypothyroidism and thyroid neoplasia in beagles. Vet Pathol.1996;33(5):486-494.
  4. De Cock HE, MacLachlan NJ. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple neoplasms and hyperplasias in the adrenal and thyroid gland of the horse resembling multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome: case report and retrospective identification of additional cases. Vet Pathol.1999;36(6):633-636.
  5. Doss JC, Grone A, Capen CC, Rosol TJ. Immunohistochemical localization of chromogranin A in endocrine tissues and endocrine tumors of dogs. Vet Pathol.1998;35(4):312-315.
  6. Gibbons PM, Garner MM, Kiupel M. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in Guinea gigs (Cavia porcellus). Vet Pathol. 2013;50(2):334-342.
  7. Kiupel M, Capen C, Miller M, Smedley R. Histological Classification of Tumors of the Endocrine System of Domestic Animals. 2nd series. Volume XII. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998.
  8. Knostman KA, Jhiang SM, Capen CC. Genetic alterations in thyroid cancer: the role of mouse models. Vet Pathol. 2007;44(1):1-14.
  9. Lopez A, Martinson SA: Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:554-555.
  10. Miller MA. Endocrine system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:701-703.
  11. Pope JP, Steeil J, Ramsay EC, Reel D, Newman SJ. Spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 Jan;29(1):8-13.
  12. Ramos-Vara JA, Frank CB, DuSold D, Miller MA. Immunohistochemical detection of Pax8 and Napsin A in canine thyroid tumours: comparison with thyroglobulin, calcitonin and thyroid transcription factor 1. J Comp Pathol. 2016 Nov;155(4):286-298
  13. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA, Johnson GC, Pace LW. Immunohistochemical detection of thyroid transcription factor-1, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin in canine normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid gland. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:480-487.
  14. Rosol TJ, Grone A. Endocrine glands. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2016:326-336.
  15. Rosol TJ, Meuten DJ. Tumors of the endocrine glands. In: Meuten DJ, ed. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 5th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017:791-799,803.
  16. Ueki H, Kowatari Y, Oyamada T, Oikawa M, Yoshikawa H. Non-functional C-cell adenoma in aged horses. J Comp Pathol. 2004;131:157-165.


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