JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
December 2018
D-V31

Signalment:  Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

HISTORY:  None.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Diffusely within periportal areas and variably extending into the midzonal and centrilobular areas (panlobular), there is lytic necrosis characterized by loss of hepatic cord architecture and replacement with eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris, hemorrhage, fibrin, heterophils, and mineral, as well as coagulative necrosis characterized by retention of hepatic cord architecture and loss of differential staining.  Diffusely remaining hepatocytes within midzonal regions are extending into centrilobular areas have undergone one or more of the following changes: cell swelling with pale eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm (lipid-type degeneration); have an eosinophilic lacy cytoplasm (glycogen-type degeneration); or are hypereosinophilic with pyknotic nuclei (necrotic).  Within affected areas, sinusoids are congested or compressed and Kupffer cells are occasionally in aggregates (micronodules) and contain yellow to brown cytoplasm pigment (hemosiderin or bile).  Multifocally, portal areas are expanded by few lymphocytes, plasma cells and occasional heterophils with ectatic lymphatic vessels (edema).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSES:  Liver:  Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, panlobular, diffuse, acute, severe, rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Caliciviral hepatitis

CAUSE:  Calicivirus: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)

CONDITION: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

For hepatic necrosis in hares:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES:

  1. Abrantes J, van der Loo W, Pendu JL, Esteves PJ. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): A review. Vet Res. 2012;43(1):12.
  2. Barcena J, Guerra B, Angulo I, et al. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RDHV) and new RDHV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles. 2015:46:106.
  3. Barthhold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Labroratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016:264-266.
  4. Brabb T, DiGiacomo RF. Viral diseases. In: Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents. San Diego, CA: Elsevier; 2012:392-396.
  5. Calvete C, Mendoza M, Sarto MP, de Bagues MPJ, et al. Detection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus GI.2/RHDV2/B in the Mediterranean pine vole (Microtus duodecimcostatus) and white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula). J Wildl Dis. 2018; [Epub ahead of print].
  6. Cheville NF, Lehmkuhl H. Cytopathology of viral diseases. In: Cheville NF, ed. Ultrastructural Pathology: the comparative cellular basis of disease. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009:399-401.
  7. Cox TE, Liu J, de Ven RV, Strive T. Different serological profiles to co-occurring pathogenic and nonpathogenic calicivirus in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) across Australia. J Wildl Dis. 2017; 53(3):472-481.
  8. Isomursu M, Neimanis A, Karkamo V, Nylund M, et al. An outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease in Finland. J Wildl Dis. 2018; 54(4):838-842.
  9. Marcato PS, Benazzi C, Vecchi G, et al. Clinical and pathological features of viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome. Rev Sci Tech. 1991;10(2):371-392.
  10. Parker J, Pesavento P. Family In: Machlachlan HN, Dubovi EJ, eds. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 5th ed. San Diego, CA: Elsevier; 2017:497-506.
  11. Turner PV, Brash ML, Smith DA. Pathology of Small Mammal Pets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2018:25-26.


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