JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
January 2019
R-B09

Signalment (JPC #1368171):  Adult female New Zealand white rabbit

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION (Slide a): Mucocutaneous junction, vulva (2 sections): Diffusely the epidermis is hyperplastic, thickened up to 3 times normal, characterized by acanthosis, anastomosing rete ridges, spongiosis, and intracellular edema.  There are multifocal erosions and ulcerations with an overlying serocellular crust composed of necrotic debris admixed with serum, numerous degenerate heterophils, lymphocytes, and variably sized colonies of 2x4 um bacterial rods and 2 um diameter bacterial cocci.  Within the adjacent epithelium there is ortho- and rare parakeratotic hyperkeratosis.  The superficial dermis is infiltrated by moderate numbers of macrophages, heterophils, and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells that surround adnexa and blood vessels, transmigrate the epidermis and follicular epithelium, and infiltrate follicular lumina (folliculitis).  Hair follicles are multifocally dilated and filled with lamellations of keratin.  Multifocally the superficial dermis, there is hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, and lymphatics are ectatic (edema).

Slide b (Warthin Starry 4.0):  Multifocally the epidermis and inflammatory infiltrate contain low to moderate numbers of filamentous, argyrophilic, 0.2 um wide by 15 um long, spirochete bacteria.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin:  Dermatitis and folliculitis, ulcerative, suppurative, and lymphohistiocytic, multifocal, moderate, with epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratosis, and numerous argyrophilic spirochetes, New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), lagomorph.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Cutaneous treponemiasis

CAUSE: Treponema paraluis-cuniculi (formerly T. cuniculi)

CONDITION: Rabbit syphilis, vent disease, venereal spirochetosis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Angell JW, Crosby-Durrani HE, Duncan JS, Carter SD, Blundell R. Histopathological characterization of the lesions of contagious ovine digital dermatitis and immunolabeling of Treponema-like organisms.  Jour Comp Pathol.  2015;153:212-226.
  2. Apprich V, Licka T, Zipfl N, Tichy A, Gabriel C. Equine hoof canker: cell proliferation and morphology.  Vet Pathol. 2017;54(4):661-668.
  3. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 287.
  4. Clegg SR, Crosby-Durrani HE, Bell J, et. al. Detection and isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from bovine pressure sores.  J Comp Pathol.  2016;154:273-282.
  5. Crosby-Durrani HE, Clegg SR, Singer E, et. al. Severe foot lesions in dairy goats associated with digital dermatitis treponemes.  J Comp Pathol.  2016;154:283-296.
  6. Frossling J, Rosander A, Bjorkman C, Naslund K, Pringle M. Detection of Treponema phagedenis-like antibodies in serum and bulk milk from cows with and without digital dermatitis.  Jour Vet Diagn Invest. 2018;30(1):86-92.
  7. Graham JE. Lagomorpha (Pikas, rabbits, and hares).  In:  Miller RE, Fowler ME. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine.  8.  St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 378.
  8. Han S, Mansfield KG, Bradway DS, et. al. Treponeme-associated hoof disease of free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) in southwestern Washington State, USA [published online ahead of print 24 September 2018]. Vet Pathol.  doi: 10.1177/0300985818798108.
  9. Hargis AM, Myers S. Integumentary system. In: Zachary JF, Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1124.
  10. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system.  In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmers Pathology of Domestic Animals.  Vol 1.  6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mobsy Elsevier; 2016:642, 644.
  11. Njaa BL. The ear. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 1259.
  12. Watson-Welder JH, Nally JE, Alt DP, Palmer MV, Coatney J, Plummer P. Experimental transmission of bovine digital dermatitis to sheep: development of an infection model.  Vet Pathol. 2018;55(2):245-257.


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