JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-F05

SIGNALMENT (AFIP Accession #3165184):  An owl monkey

HISTORY:  This 4-year-old, male, owl monkey (Aotus sp.) had experienced weight loss and anemia of undetermined cause over the last six months. Treatments for the latter had been unsuccessful. Recently, the animal was treated with an antibiotic for suspected sepsis. Subsequently, the monkey developed white plaques on the tongue and was euthanized.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Esophagus: There is marked hyperplasia of the mucosal epithelium characterized by deep rete ridge formation, acanthosis, increased intercellular clear space with prominent intercellular bridging (spongiosus), and intracellular edema with multifocal areas of erosion and ulceration and replacement with viable and degenerate neutrophils, macrophages, sloughed nucleated squamous epithelial cells, necrotic debris, and numerous oval to round, 3-6 um diameter, pale-staining, thin-walled blastospores and blastoconidia arranged in short chains (pseudohyphae), as individual yeast, and as slender, 3-4 um wide, septate, parallel-walled non-branching hyphae. Within the mucosa there are numerous intraepidermal pustules which contain viable and degenerate neutrophils, yeast, and necrotic debris. The lamina propria is expanded by neutrophils, macrophages, and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells which surround, separate, and cause disorganization, degeneration (vacuolated sarcoplasm with vesiculate nuclei), and necrosis (shrunken, angular, hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm with pyknotic nuclei) of smooth myocytes in the muscularis mucosa admixed with increased clear space and ectatic lymphatic vessels (edema).   

Tongue:  There is marked hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium characterized by deep rete ridge formation, acanthosis, increased intercellular clear space with prominent intercellular bridging (spongiosus), and increased intracellular clear space (hydropic degeneration). Within the superficial mucosa, in between epithelial cells, there are pockets of viable and degenerate neutrophils admixed with eosinophilic and karyorrhectic cellular debris (mucosal pustules). The overlying mucosa is eroded, with loss of the stratum corneum which is replaced by viable and degenerate neutrophils, sloughed nucleated squames (acantholytic keratinocytes), necrotic debris, and numerous oval to round, 3-6 um diameter, pale-staining, thin-walled blastospores and blastoconidia arranged in short chains (pseudohyphae), as individual yeast, and as slender, 3-4 um wide, septate, parallel-walled, non-branching hyphae.   Adjacent epithelial cells are degenerate (swollen epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and vesiculate nucleus) or necrotic (shrunken epithelial cells with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic nucleus).  Rarely, there is transmigration of neutrophils across the mucosa. Within the superficial submucosa there are numerous lymphocytes and plasma cells with fewer neutrophils admixed with increased clear space and ectatic lymphatic vessels (edema).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Esophagus and tongue: Esophagitis and glossitis, neutrophilic and histiocytic, diffuse, moderate with mucosal hyperplasia numerous fungal yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae (etiology consistent with Candida sp.), Owl monkey, non-human primate.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Oral Candidiasis

CAUSE:  Candida alibicans

CONDITION:  “Thrush”

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES:

  1. Burgess HJ, Gaunt MC. Pathology in practice. Peritonitis causes by albicans infection in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc.  2014; 245(10):1107-1109.
  2. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed.  Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:458-459.   
  3. Dykstra MJ, Charlton BR, Chin RP, et al. Fungal infections. In: Swayne DE, ed. Diseases of Poultry. 13th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing; 2013:1088-1090.
  4. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:331-332.
  5. Hargis AM, Myers S. The integument. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:1081.
  6. McAdam AJ, Milner DA, Sharpe AH. Infectious diseases. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:386-387.
  7. Migaki G, Jones SR. Mycotic diseases in marine mammals. In: Howard EB, Pathobiology of Marine Mammal Diseases, Vol 2. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1983:1-12.
  8. Ogasawara F, Yamamoto Y, Sato Y, et al. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis diseases in backyard chickens with unusual pox lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Avian Dis.  2016; 60(3):705-708.
  9. Pressler BM. Candidiasis and Rhodotorulosis. In: Greene GE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012: 627-633.
  10. Ramot Y, Obaya A, McNamara A, Nyska A. Cutaneous candidiasis in a Gottingen minipig: a potential pitfall in preclinical studies. Toxicol Pathol. 2017; 45(8):1032-1034.
  11. Reidarson T, McBain J, Dalton L, Rindaldi M: Mycotic diseases. In: CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001:337-353.
  12. Robinson WF, Robinson NA. Cardiovascular system. In: Grant Maxie M, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:30-31.
  13. Schmidt RE, Reavill DR, Phalen DN. Pathology of Pet and Aviary Birds.  2nd ed.  Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015:61-62.
  14. Shivaprasad HL. Fungal diseases.  In: Boulianne M, ed.  Avian Disease Manual. 7th ed.  Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc; 2013:143-144.
  15. Simmons J, Gibson S. Bacterial and mycotic diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Nonhuman primates in biomedical research.  Vol 2. 2nd ed.  San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012: 154-155.
  16. Terayama Y, Matsuura T, Ozaki K. Induction of severe chronic hyperplastic candidiasis in rat by opportunistic infection of albicans through combination of diabetes and intermittent prednisolone administration. Toxicol Pathol. 2017; 45(6):745-755.
  17. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed.  Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:32, 202.   
  18. Vilander AC, Niles GA, Frank CB. Cerebral Candidal abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus infection in an aborted fetus. J Comp Pathol.  2016 Feb-Apr;154(2-3):161-164.
  19. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of Microbial Infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:232-233.


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |