JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

August 2017

P-B13

 

Signalment (JPC #2288032):  5-year-old Rhesus monkey

HISTORY:  This single-housed, SRV and SIV negative Rhesus monkey was depressed for 3 days after anesthesia.  On the 4th day, the animal was found down in his cage, dehydrated, and in shock.  All lung lobes appeared firm and consolidated, and there were multiple purulent and hemorrhagic foci on the pleural surfaces.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Lung:  Diffusely, alveolar lumina are filled with macrophages containing 1 x 3 um bacilli that are surrounded by a thin clear capsule, admixed with degenerate neutrophils, fibrin, and eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis).  Alveolar septa are often discontinuous and replaced with fibrin and cellular debris (septal necrosis).  Bronchiolar walls and epithelium are frequently necrotic with lumina containing degenerate neutrophils, fibrin, macrophages, and eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis).  Multifocally, vessels walls are necrotic and infiltrated by neutrophils, macrophages, and fibrin (fibrinonecrotizing vasculitis); there is marked perivascular hemorrhage and edema; and there are frequent fibrin thrombi that often occlude the lumens.  Multifocally, the pleura is moderately expanded by similar inflammatory cells, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Bronchopneumonia, fibrinosuppurative, necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe, with vasculitis, fibrinous pleuritis, and numerous intrahistiocytic encapsulated bacilli, Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulata), nonhuman primate.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Pneumonic klebsiellosis

CAUSE:  Klebsiella pneumoniae

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Bueno MG, Iovine RO, et al. Pneumonia and bacteremia in a golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae during a translocation program of free-ranging animals in Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015; 27(3):387-391.
  2. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie ME, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2007:632.
  3. Fahey MA, Westmoreland SV. Nervous system disorders of nonhuman primates and research models. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2. 2nd San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012:744.
  4. Foster RA. Female reproductive system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:1186.
  5. Husain AN. The lung. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:703.
  6. Lopez A, Martinson A. Respiratory system, mediastinum and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:546.
  7. Lowenstine LJ, Osborn KG. Respiratory system diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2. 2nd San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012:453-454.
  8. Percy DH, Barthold SW. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016:62, 142, 145, 226, 279.
  9. Sasaki E, Tokinwa T, et al. Peracute bacterial meningitis due to infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in captive-bred ruffled lemurs (Varecia variegate). J Comp Pathol. 2017; 156:281-285.
  10. Schlafer DH, Miller RB. The female genital system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:388, 417.
  11. Seguel M, Gottdenker NL, et al. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae in California sea lions (Zalopus californicus): Pathologic findings in natural infections. Vet Pathol. 2017; epub ahead of print: DOI:101177/0300985817705172.
  12. Simmons J, Gibson S. Bacterial and mycotic diseases of nonhuman primates. In: Abee CR, Mansfield K, Tardiff S, Morris T, eds. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Vol 2. 2nd San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2012:128-130.
  13. Soto E, LaMon V, Griffin M, Keirstead N, Beierschmitt A, Palmour R. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from nonhuman primates. J Wildl Dis. 2012; 48(3):603-611.
  14. Twenhafel NA, Whitehouse CA, Stevens EL, Hottel HE, Foster CD, Gamble S, et al. Multisystemic abscesses in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) with invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae—identification of the hypermucoviscosity phenotype. Vet Pathol. 2008; 45(2):226-231.
  15. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:113-114.
  16. Van der Windt GJ, Florquin S, de Vos AF, et al. CD44 deficiency is associated with increased bacterial clearance but enhanced lung inflammation during Gram-negative pneumonia. Am J Pathol. 2010;177(5):2483-2494.
  17. Whitehouse CA, Keirstead N, Taylor J, Reinhardt JL, Beierschmitt A. Prevalence of hypermucoid Klebsiella pneumoniae among wild-caught and captive vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) on the island of St. Kitts. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46(3):971-976.
  18. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:179-180.


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