JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
January 2018
U-P05 (NP)

Signalment (JPC# A75-40-2):  Puppy

HISTORY:  Incidental finding from a puppy killed by a car.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney (2 sections):  Multifocally, effacing less than 5% of renal cortex and compressing adjacent tubules, there are variably sized granulomas.  The granulomas are up to 300um in diameter, have a central core of necrosis surrounded by epithelioid macrophages, which are further bounded by lymphocytes, plasma cells, occasional eosinophilis, fibroblasts, fibrous connective tissue, and occasional multinucleated giant cells (foreign body and Langhans type).  Occasionally, the granulomas center on cross and tangential sections of an often poorly discernible nematode larva.  Larval nematodes are 40 um in diameter with a 2 um eosinophilic cuticle, and large lateral cords that fill the pseudocoelom.  Within the renal interstitium, there are multifocal aggregates of low numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Multifocally, scattered tubules are ectatic and lined by attenuated epithelium. The subcapsular surface is mildly irregular and undulant.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:  Granulomas, multiple with mild multifocal lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis and nematode larva, breed unspecified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Renal toxicariasis

CAUSE:  Toxocara canis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

family Ascaridae

Mammals; most are host specific and rarely develop to maturity in species other than their true host; eggs remain infective in soil for years

Common parasitic lesion in the kidneys of dogs; second stage larvae localize in the kidneys and other viscera during somaticmigration; focal areas of inflammation and scarring are occasionally observed as incidental lesions; renal function is rarely affected, even when numerous larvae are present

PATHOGENESIS:

LIFE CYCLE:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:   

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Granulomatous nephritis:

Foamy, lipid-laden macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fibrosis interspersed with cholesterol clefts

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Ascaridae

REFERENCES

  1. Breshears MA, Confer AW. The urinary system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier; 2017:662.
  2. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:442.
  3. Elsemore DA, Geng J, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for coproantigen detection of Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in dogs and Toxocara cati in cats. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017; 29(5):645-653.
  4. Gardiner CH, Poynton SL. An Atlas of Metazoan Parasites in Animal Tissue. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1999:20-21.
  5. Newman SJ. The urinary system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2012:639.
  6. Foreyt WJ. Veterinary Parasitology, 5th ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2001:19-21.
  7. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Digestive system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:219.

 


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