JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-V01

Signalment (JPC# 1801669):  A young cat

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Small intestine:  Diffusely there is marked blunting, fusion, and loss of villi with multifocal loss and replacement of crypts by small amounts of karyorrhectic and cellular debris (necrosis), edema, hemorrhage, and moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils.  Remaining crypts are ectatic, lined by attenuated epithelium, and crypt lumens contain degenerate neutrophils, necrotic debris and sloughed necrotic epithelial cells (crypt abscesses). There is multifocal crypt regeneration with crypts lined by hypertrophied and piled up, hyperplastic epithelium with a coarse nuclear chromatin pattern. Multifocally, within the surrounding lamina propria, there are increased numbers of neutrophils and few vessels contain fibrin thrombi.  The submucosa is moderately expanded by hemorrhage, fibrin, clear space with ectatic lymphatics (edema), few perivascular lymphocytes and plasma cells, and macrophages with intracytoplasmic erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis).  Multifocally in the tunica muscularis, there is mild perivascular edema with few lymphocytes and plasma cells.

Lymph node, mesenteric:  Multifocally, there is mild lymphoid depletion of follicles with accentuation of the stromal and sinusoidal architecture, and follicular germinal centers often contain many macrophages.  Diffusely, the subcapsular and medullary sinuses are expanded by numerous erythrocytes admixed with low numbers of foamy macrophages with phagocytized erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis), lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, small amounts of fibrin, edema, and karyorrhectic debris.   

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Small intestine:  Enteritis, necrohemorrhagic, acute, diffuse, marked, with villus atrophy, and crypt necrosis, breed unspecified, feline.
  2. Lymph node, mesenteric: Lymphoid depletion, multifocal, mild.
  3. Lymph node, mesenteric: Draining hemorrhage, acute, diffuse, moderate, with mild sinus histiocytosis and erythrophagocytosis. 

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Parvoviral enteritis

CAUSE:  Feline parvovirus; Feline panleukopenia virus

CONDITION:  Feline panleukopenia; feline enteritis; feline distemper

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

For feline enteritis:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016:17-19,122-124,175-176,196,259.
  2. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone marrow, blood cells, and the lymphoid / lymphatic system.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathological Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.; 2017:803.
  3. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:406-407,410.
  4. Greene, CE, Addie DD. Feline parvovirus infections. In: Greene C, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012:80-88.
  5. Ha Y, Lee YH, Ahn KK, Kim B, Chae C. Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by prenatal porcine circovirus 2 infection and postnatal parvovirus infection or immunostimulation. Vet Pathol. 2008;45(1):842-848.
  6. Kim J, Ha Y, Chae C. Potentiation of porcine circovirus 2-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus is associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor – alpha. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:718-725.
  7. Kipar A, Kemendahl J, Jackson ML, Reinacher M. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis. Vet Pathol. 2001;38(1):359-371.
  8. McEndaffer L, Molesan A, Erb H, Kelly K. Feline Panleukopenia Virus Is Not Associated With Myocarditis or Endomyocardial Restrictive Cardiomyopathy in Cats. Vet Pathol. 2017 Jul;54(4):669-675.
  9. Pesavento PA, Murphy BG. Common and Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Animal Shelter.  Vet Pathol. 2014;51(2): 478-491.
  10. Pfankuche VM, Jo WK, van der Vries E, Jungwirth N, Lorenzen S, Osterhaus ADME, Baumgärtner W, Puff C. Neuronal Vacuolization in Feline Panleukopenia Virus Infection. Vet Pathol. 2018 Mar;55(2):294-297.
  11. Resibois A, Coppens A, Poncelet L. Naturally occurring parvovirus-associated feline hypogranular cerebellar hypoplasia – a comparison to experimentally induced lesions using immunohistology. Vet Pathol. 2007;44(1):831-841.
  12. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:154-158.
  13. Valli VEO, Kiupel M, Bienzle D. Hematopoietic system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:145.


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