JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Signalment (JPC# 1801669): A young cat
HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Small intestine: Diffusely there is marked blunting, fusion, and loss of villi with multifocal loss and replacement of crypts by small amounts of karyorrhectic and cellular debris (necrosis), edema, hemorrhage, and moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. Remaining crypts are ectatic, lined by attenuated epithelium, and crypt lumens contain degenerate neutrophils, necrotic debris and sloughed necrotic epithelial cells (crypt abscesses). There is multifocal crypt regeneration with crypts lined by hypertrophied and piled up, hyperplastic epithelium with a coarse nuclear chromatin pattern. Multifocally, within the surrounding lamina propria, there are increased numbers of neutrophils and few vessels contain fibrin thrombi. The submucosa is moderately expanded by hemorrhage, fibrin, clear space with ectatic lymphatics (edema), few perivascular lymphocytes and plasma cells, and macrophages with intracytoplasmic erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis). Multifocally in the tunica muscularis, there is mild perivascular edema with few lymphocytes and plasma cells.
Lymph node, mesenteric: Multifocally, there is mild lymphoid depletion of follicles with accentuation of the stromal and sinusoidal architecture, and follicular germinal centers often contain many macrophages. Diffusely, the subcapsular and medullary sinuses are expanded by numerous erythrocytes admixed with low numbers of foamy macrophages with phagocytized erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis), lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, small amounts of fibrin, edema, and karyorrhectic debris.
- Small intestine: Enteritis, necrohemorrhagic, acute, diffuse, marked, with villus atrophy, and crypt necrosis, breed unspecified, feline.
- Lymph node, mesenteric: Lymphoid depletion, multifocal, mild.
- Lymph node, mesenteric: Draining hemorrhage, acute, diffuse, moderate, with mild sinus histiocytosis and erythrophagocytosis.
ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Parvoviral enteritis
CAUSE: Feline parvovirus; Feline panleukopenia virus
CONDITION: Feline panleukopenia; feline enteritis; feline distemper
- Feline parvovirus is a ubiquitous, extremely stable, highly infectious virus that produces serious and often fatal disease in young and/or naive animals
- Family Parvoviridae, genus Parvovirus; 25nm, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single stranded DNA virus
- Intranuclear replication with intranuclear inclusions (large basophilic or amphophilic Feulgen-positive) early in the course of disease
- All parvoviruses lack polymerase enzymes and are dependent on host cell DNA polymerase II (produced during S and early G2 phases) for replication; so effects of parvovirus infection are greatest in tissues with a high mitotic rate
- Cause disease in swine, cats, dogs, mink, mice, rats, hamsters, geese, and ducks, rabbits
- Specificity of parvoviruses determined by receptor binding to transferrin receptor TfR in cats and dogs and neuraminic acid in cats
- Fecal-oral route; virus enters and replicates in the oropharyngeal (mucosal epithelial cells, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and/or macrophages > leukocyte trafficking > viruses attach via capsid to cell neuraminic acid or transferrin receptor > primary cell free or cell associated viremia > infection of rapidly dividing/mitotically active cells in S or early G2 phase of cell cycle (radiomimetic tropism) > cells die (lyse with viral release) or arrest mitosis in the pre-mitotic phase > viral shedding for 3-5 days
- Although the pathogenesis remains the same, disease presentation varies based on the type of cells that are dividing at the time of infection
- Early in utero infection: Fetal death > abortion/resorption or sometimes no effect
- Perinatal infection (2 wks prenatal - 2 wks after birth): Arrest of external granular layer in the cerebellum > lack of migration and formation of inner granular and Purkinje layers > cerebellar hypoplasia and permanent ataxia
- Between 2 and 4 mos.: Infection of bone marrow, thymus, and lymphoid tissue > lymphocytolysis, lymphoid and thymic atrophy, leukopenia and enteritis > loss of villi by attrition (not destruction); virus targets crypt epithelium > malabsorption > diarrhea
- Between 4 and 12 mos.: Enteritis from necrosis of crypt enterocytes
TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:
- Pyrexia, depression, inapptence, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, anemia, sudden death; most are subclinical
- Enteric signs correlate to the severity of intestinal crypt epithelial damage
- Panleukopenia dominates because of infection of rapidly dividing bone marrow and lymphocytolysis in all infected lymphoid tissue
- Diarrhea results from reduced functional absorptive surface of the intestine and effusion of tissue fluids and hemorrhage into the lumen
- Dehydration and electrolyte depletion result from enteric malabsorption, effusion of tissue fluids, vomition, and reduced fluid intake
- Hypoproteinemia is common and may lead to hydrothorax and ascites
- Intestinal hemorrhage can lead to anemia
TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:
- Flaccid, segmentally reddened and diffusely dilated intestine; intestinal lesions may be minimal to mild; serositis; grossly observable hemorrhage may be absent, in contrast to dogs
- Cerebellar hypoplasia
- Thymic atrophy/involution; lymph node edema and possibly hemorrhage
- Bone marrow is pale and may have a semi-fluid consistency
TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:
- Small intestinal lesions:
- Crypt epithelial attenuation / necrosis with crypt ectasis, loss, crypt abscesses, and villous atrophy and collapse with epithelial erosion or ulceration and exudation of fibrin and hemorrhage
- Rare light basophilic intranuclear inclusions (late incubation or early clinical stages), and regeneration in late/healing stage
- Fibrin and hemorrhage as it progresses with mucosal ulceration, variable inflammatory cells
- Most severe lesions near Peyers patches and Peyers patches may be severely depleted or regenerative depending on stage of disease
- Invasive fungal hyphae may be seen
- Neutrophils within the lamina propria
- Lymph nodes/thymus/splenic white pulp: lymphocytolysis
- Thymus: cortex; collapsed lobules that are flattened and triangular, prominent Hassall’s corpuscle, absence of small lymphocytes and cortical cells and few lymphoblasts
- Lymph node: follicle paracortex
- Spleen: white pulp
- Large intesine: Similar lesions to small intestine but less severe
- Cerebellar hypoplasia with thinning of layers and loss of granular cells and Purkinje cells
- Bone marrow: depletion of all proliferating elements in severely affected animals; followed by marked stem cell hyperplasia
- Retina: Retinal dysplasia (retinal folds and rosettes), multifocal necrosis and scarring
- Liver: hepatocyte dissociation; centrilobular atrophy and congestion
- Pancreas: atrophy
- Lung: congestion and edema
- Central nervous system: neuronal vacuolization is reported
ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:
- Virus isolation
- IFA to antigen in tissues
For feline enteritis:
- Feline leukemia virus (feline retrovirus):
- Generally in older cats
- Crypt necrosis is reported
- Panleukopenia-like syndrome with persistent unresponsive leukopenia and anemia and enteric lesions similar to FPV
- However, bone marrow depletion does not occur, and lymphoid tissue is normal to hyperplastic
- Feline enteric coronavirus affects the villous tips
- Feline infectious peritonitis (feline coronavirus) causes granulomatous vasculitis in many sites, including the small intestine
- Rotavirus affects the upper two-thirds of the villi in the proximal small intestine
- Toxoplasma gondii causes leukopenia; iritis and terminal bronchopneumonia are common
- FPV infects all Felidae, mink, raccoons, and some other procyonidae
- Canine parvovirus: CPV-1 causes a subclinical enteritis and CPV-2 causes severe enteritis, lymphoid depletion, panleukopenia, and myocarditis (in 4-6 week old pups); CPV-2c may also infect cats
- Mink enteritis virus causes lymphoid depletion with secondary infections and resultant enteritis
- Bovine parvovirus is reported to cause enteritis in calves and abortion and birth of weak calves
- Porcine parvovirus: A cause of SMEDI (Stillbirth/Mummification/Embryonic death/Infertility), and vesicular and ulcerative dermatitis and glossitis
- Porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus – together can cause postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome
- Rat parvoviruses include three groups; however, Kilham’s rat virus is the most pathogenic and may be the only one to produce clinical disease
- Intestinal mucosal lesions do not occur in the rat
- Adults: Random hemorrhage within the cerebral and cerebellar white and gray matter; coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage within the testes and epididymis; hepatic necrosis; infertility and fetal resorption
- Mouse parvoviruses include minute virus of mice (cerebellar hypoplasia in neonates) and mouse parvovirus (anomalies in immune function in adults)
- Aleutian mink disease parvovirus
- Fatal to mink homozygous for the gene that confers the Aleutian coat color
- Persistent infection with continuous release of virions > hypergammaglobulinemia > immune complex deposition within vascular system, glomeruli, and other tissues (liver, spleen, etc.) often with a marked plasmacytosis
- Fatal to mink homozygous for the gene that confers the Aleutian coat color
- Hamster parvovirus (HaPV)
- Gross lesions: Discolored or missing incisors; small testes; they do not get cerebellar hypoplasia
- Histologic lesions: Enamel hypoplasia with mineralization and fibrosis of remaining incisor tissue; suppurative periodontitis; atrophy of testicular seminiferous tubular epithelium; multifocal cerebral myelomalacia
- Goose parvovirus (Derzy’s disease virus) causes a highly lethal disease of goslings 8-30 days old with severe hepatitis and degeneration of striated and smooth muscle, including myocardium
- Rabbit parvovirus causes a mild enteritis
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