JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
November 2018
D-V18

Signalment (JPC #1687842):  A sheep

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver and gallbladder:  Diffusely affecting all of the section of liver there is massive lytic necrosis characterized by dissociation of hepatic cord architecture, loss of hepatocytes and replacement by cellular and karyorrhectic debris, fibrin, and hemorrhage.  Remaining hepatocytes are shrunken, individualized and have pale, vacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration) or are condensed with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm,  pyknotic, karyorrhectic or karyolytic nuclei (necrotic) admixed with cellular debris and fibrin. Few degenerate hepatocytes contain eosinophilic, often elongate, 5-8 um intranuclear viral inclusion bodies that periphalizes chromatin.  The connective tissue surrounding the gallbladder is loosely arranged and expanded by clear space, fibrin, hemorrhage and numerous dilated lymphatics (edema).  The lamina propria and submucosa of the gallbladder is expanded by mild edema and hemorrhage and contains low numbers of viable and degenerate neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Liver:  Hepatocellular necrosis, acute, diffuse, massive, severe with few eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, breed unspecified, ovine.
  2. Gallbladder: Cholecystitis, neutrophilic and lymphoplasmacytic, subacute, diffuse, mild, with fibrin, hemorrhage and edema. 

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Bunyaviral hepatitis and cholecystitis

CAUSE:  Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (phlebovirus)

CONDITION:  Rift Valley Fever

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJ, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier, Inc; 2017:457.
  2. Cantile C, Youssef S. Nervous system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Louis, MO: Elsevier, Inc; 2016:281.
  3. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ. Liver and biliary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier, Inc; 2016:312-313.
  4. Odendaal L, Clift SJ, Fosgate GT, Davis AS. Lesions and Cellular Tropism of Natural Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection in Adult Sheep. Vet Pathol. 2018 Oct 21:3000985818806049. [Epub ahead of print].
  5. Odendaal L, Fosgate GT, Romito M, Coetzer JA, Clift SJ. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and sheep. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Jan;26(1):49-60.
  6. Reperant LA, et al. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals. J Comp Pathol. 2016 Jul;155(Suppl 1):S41-53.
  7. Schlafer DH, Foster RA Female Genital System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. Louis, MO: Elsevier, Inc; 2016:439-440.


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