JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

November 2016

I-V03

 

Signalment (JPC 1851279):  10‑day‑old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

HISTORY:  This bird was from a flock with increased mortality in birds under 15 days of age.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION (Slide A):  Feathered skin:  Multifocally within the epidermis and feather follicle epithelium, individual and clusters of cells are swollen and contain abundant, microvacuolated, pale eosinophilic cytoplasm (vacuolar degeneration).  Nuclei of these cells are enlarged and often contain variably shaped, up to 20 um diameter, indistinct, pale amphophilic or clear to glassy intranuclear viral inclusion bodies that marginate the chromatin.  Diffusely there is moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis.  

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Feathered skin, epidermal and follicular epithelium: Vacuolar degeneration, multifocal, moderate, with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and amphophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, budgerigar, avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Polyomaviral dermatitis

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION (Slide B):  Kidney:  Multifocally the interstitium is infiltrated by moderate numbers of mononuclear inflammatory cells and hemorrhage.  Multifocally, scattered tubular epithelial cells are degenerate (characterized by swollen cells with vacuolated cytoplasm), or necrotic (characterized by shrunken cells with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic or karyorrhectic nuclei).  Tubules occasionally contain sloughed cellular and karyorrhectic debris.  Multifocally, tubular epithelial cells and glomerular cells are enlarged and contain round to oval, up to 20 um diameter, indistinct, pale eosinophilic to amphophilic to clear, glassy intranuclear viral inclusion bodies that marginate the chromatin.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:  Nephritis, interstitial, mononuclear, multifocal, chronic, with tubular degeneration and necrosis, and tubular and glomerular intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, budgerigar, avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Polyomaviral nephritis

ETIOLOGY:  Avian polyomavirus (APV)

CONDITION:  Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD)

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

 TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

Neonates:

Larger psittacines:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 
Gross

Microscopically

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References: 

  1. Branson WR, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR. Avian Medicine Principles and Application. Lakeworth, FL: Wingers Publishing, Inc; 1994:885-894.
  2. Cockerell GL, Cooper BJ. Disorders of cell growth and cancer biology. In: Slauson DO, Cooper BJ, eds. Mechanisms of Disease a Textbook of Comparative General Pathology. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2002  
  3. Giannitti F, Higgins RJ, Pesavento PA, et al. Temporal and geographic clustering of polyomavirus-associated olfactory tumors in 10 free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol. 2014;51(4): 832-45.
  4. Graham DL, Calnek BW. Papovavirus infection in hand-fed parrots: Virus isolation and pathology. Avian Diseases. 1985 (31):398-410.
  5. Guerin JL. Hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese. In: Glisson JR, McDougald LR, Nolan LK, Suarez DL, Venugopal N., eds. Diseases of Poultry. 13th Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2013; 440-3.
  6. Jennings SH, Wise AG, Nickeleit V, Maes RK, Cianciolo RE, Del Piero F, Law JM, et al. Polyomavirus-associated nephritis in 2 horses. Vet Pathol. 2013; 50(5):769-74.
  7. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. Veterinary Pathology, 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1997: 104-106, 256-257.
  8. Kingston RS. Budgerigar fledgling disease (papovavirus) in pet birds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1992; 4:455-458.
  9. Lacroux C, Andreoletti O, Payre B, Pingret J, Dissais A, Jean-LucGuerin. Pathology of spontaneous and experimental infections by goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. Avian Path. 2004; 33: 351-358.
  10. Nemeth NM, Gonzalez-Astudillo V, Oesterle PT, Howerth EW. A 5-year retrospective review of avian diseases diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Georgia. J Comp Pathol. 2016; 155(2-3):105-
  11. Palya V, Ivanics E, Glavits R, Dan A, Mato T, Zarka P. Epizootic occurrence of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis virus infection of geese. Avian Path. 2004; 33: 244-250.
  12. Percy DH, Barthold SW. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2016: 19-21, 122, 176-8, 197, 261.
  13. Phalen DN, Radabaugh CS, Dahlhausen RD, Styles DK.  Viremia, virus shedding, and antibody response during natural avian polyomavirus infection in parrots. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000; 217:32-36.


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