JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM
April 2018
H-V06

Signalment (JPC 690455):  Pig, age, breed and sex unspecified

HISTORY:  This is one of a group of pigs inoculated with an infectious agent.  At necropsy, there were numerous petechial hemorrhages over the serosal surfaces of many organs.  

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Spleen:  There is multifocal vasculitis characterized by hypertrophy, degeneration and/or necrosis of the endothelium and thickening of the tunica media by brightly eosinophilic hyalinized fibrin and edema and minimal necrotic debris (fibrinoid necrosis) vessel lumina are occasionally are occluded by fibrin thrombi.  In more severely affected vessels there is complete loss of vessel architecture with replacement by fibrin, edema, hemorrhage and necrotic debris. Surrounding these vessels are variably sized, well-demarcated, up to 4 mm areas of coagulative necrosis (infarcts) admixed with lytic necrosis, fibrin, edema and hemorrhage which fill and expand red pulp vascular spaces.  There is diffuse lymphoid depletion in the white pulp characterized by a marked decrease in size and number of periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths and lymphoid follicles, and remaining follicles lack discernable germinal centers, mantle, and marginal zones.  The capsule is diffusely lined by reactive mesothelial cells and fibrous papillary projections that multifocally extend from the capsule.  There is minimal focal hemorrhage in the perisplenic adipose tissue.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSES:  Spleen:  Vasculitis, fibrinonecrotizing, multifocal, marked, with necrosis (infarcts) and diffuse lymphoid depletion, breed not specified, porcine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Pestiviral splenic infarcts

CAUSE:  Classical swine fever virus (porcine pestivirus)

SYNONYMS:  Classical swine fever (CSF), hog cholera, Schweinepest, peste du porc, pesti svina

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

For gross lesions:

Spleen

Kidney - (turkey egg kidney)

Tonsils and Lymphoid Tissue

For similar clinical signs and cutaneous lesions:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

Other pestiviruses

REFERENCES: 

  1. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone marrow, blood cells, and the lymphoid / lymphatic system.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathological Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.; 2017:608-609, 862.
  2. Gomez-Villamandos JC, Salguero FJ, Ruiz-Villamor E, et al. Classical swine fever: Pathology of bone marrow. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:157-163.
  3. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular system and lymphatic vessels.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathological Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.; 2017:608.
  4. Miller DM, Zachary JF. Nervous system.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathological Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.; 2017:862.
  5. Kirkland PD, Potier ML, Vannier P, Finlaison D. Pestiviruses. In: Zimmerman JJ, Karriker LA, Ramirez A, Schwartz KJ, Stevenson GW, eds., Disease of Swine. 10th ed., Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2012:539-546.
  6. Valli VEO, Kiupel M, Bienzle D. Hematopoietic system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:178-181.
  7. Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Mur L, Gomez-Villamandos JC, Carrasco L. An update on the epidemiology and pathology of African swine fever.  J Comp Pathol. 2015 Jan;152(1):9-21.
  8. Zachary JF. Nervous system. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012:827.


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