JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-P10

Signalment (JPC #1621137):  A dog

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOGIC descriptionEsophagus:  Focally expanding the tunica muscularis, compressing adjacent skeletal myocytes and overlying submucosal glands, and elevating the overlying submucosa and mucosa is a 12 x 8 mm inflammatory nodule centered on  numerous transverse and longitudinal sections of adult spiurid nematodes surrounded by high numbers of plasma cells, macrophages (often hemosiderin-laden), fewer lymphocytes, and rare neutrophils and eosinophils, which extend into the submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa.  Nematodes and inflammatory cells are surrounded by numerous reactive fibroblasts and small caliber blood vessels (granulation tissue) progressing to more dense fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis).  Adult nematodes are 1 mm in diameter and have an 8 μm thick, smooth cuticle, coelomyarian-polymyarian musculature, prominent lateral cords, a pseudocoelom containing a moderate amount of eosinophilic material, an intestine lined by uninucleate columnar epithelium with a prominent brush border and male or female reproductive organs.  Multifocally, adjacent myocytes are compressed and shrunken (atrophy) and are often separated/replaced by fibrosis.

Morphologic diagnosisEsophagus:  Esophagitis, nodular, fibrosing, lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic chronic, marked, with adult nematodes, etiology consistent with Spirocerca lupi, breed unspecified, canine.

Etiologic diagnosisEsophageal spirocercosis

CAUSE:  Spirocerca lupi

General DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

LIFE CYCLE:

TYPICAL Clinical FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL TESTS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Esophageal parasites:

Parasites associated with neoplasia (Mnemonic SOCS-T):

References:

  1. Alexander AB, Poirotte C, Porton IJ, Freeman KL, et al. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-living lemurs and domestic carnivores in eastern Madagascar. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2016; 47(1):141-149.
  2. Blume GR, Reis Junior JL, Gardiner CH, et al. Spirocerca lupi granulomatous pneumonia in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014;26(6):815-817.
  3. Dvir E, Clift SJ. Evaluation of selected growth factor expression in canine spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi)-associated non-neoplastic nodules and sarcoma. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174(3-4):257-266.
  4. Dvir E, Mellanby RJ, Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Schoeman JP. Plasma IL-8 concentrations are increased in dogs with spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190(1-2):185-190.
  5. Ferguson JA, Woodberry K, Gillin CM, et al. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47(1):140-153.
  6. Gardiner CH, Poynton SL. Spirurids. In: Gardiner CH, Poynton SL, eds. An Atlas of Metazoan Parasites in Animal Tissues. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1999:30-34.
  7. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:356-357.
  8. Lorenzi DD, Furlanello T. What is your diagnosis? Esophageal nodules in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol. 2010;39(3):391-392.
  9. Mukorera V, Dvir E, van der Merwe LL, Goddard A. Serum C-reactive protein concentration in benign and malignant canine spirocercosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25(4):963-966.
  10. Mukorera V, Kirberger RM, Mabeta P, Dvir E. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in dogs with spirocercosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(6):1642-1645.
  11. Mukorera V, van der Merwe LJ, Lavy E, Aroch I, Dvir E. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity is not a marker for neoplastic transformation of esophageal nodules in canine spirocercosis. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011;40(3):389-392.
  12. Mylonakis ME, Ceron JJ, Leontides L, Rallis TS, Koutinas AF. Serum acute phase proteins in dogs with symptomatic esophageal spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190(1-2):191-195.
  13. Pazzi P, Goddard A, Kristensen AT, Dvir E. Evaluation of hemostatic abnormalities in canine spirocercosis and its association with systemic inflammation. J Vet Intern Med. 2014;28(1):21-29.
  14. Phythian CJ, Stafford KD, Coles GC, Morgan ER. Taeniid and other parasite ova in the faeces of working sheepdogs in south-west England. Vet Rec. 2018; 182(21):603.
  15. Rinas MA, Nesnek R, Kinsella JM, DeMatteo KE. Fatal aortic aneurysm and rupture in a neotropical bush dog (Speothos venaticus) caused by Spirocerca lupi. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164(2-4):347-349.
  16. Shipov A, Kelmer G, Lavy E, Milgram J, Aroch I, Segev G. Long-term outcome of transendoscopic oesophageal mass ablation in dogs with Spirocerca lupi-associated oesophageal sarcoma. Vet Rec. 2015; 177(14):365.
  17. Stone RH, Karelma F, Saba CF et al. Lymphosarcoma associated with Heterobilharzia americana infection in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23(5):1065-1070.
  18. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:34-35.
  19. van der Merwe LL, Kirberger RM, Clift SJ, Williams M, Keller N, Naidoo V. Spirocera lupi infection in the dog: a review. Vet J. 2008;176(3):294-309.


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