JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
January 2018
U-P04 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #1599299):  Bovine

HISTORY:  Tissue from a cow in a herd experiencing an epizootic disease. Affected cattle became febrile, refused to eat and salivated profusely.  Milk production dropped and the animals were found to be anemic with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.  Some cows died, others aborted and many recovered after one to two weeks of clinical disease.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Diffusely within glomerular tufts the mesangium is moderately hypercellular and there is mild multifocal accumulation of fibrin and small amounts of necrotic debris within tufts. Multifocally, glomerular tufts are adhered to Bowman’s capsule (synechiae) with minimal visceral and parietal epithelial cell hypertrophy.  Occasionally within the glomerular endothelium, there are one or more 20-30 um thin walled protozoal cysts (meronts) containing numerous 2-3 um diameter, oval basophilic merozoites. Multifocally, mildly expanding the cortical interstitium are predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells, with occasional macrophages and neutrophils.  Multifocally, tubules are mildly ectatic.  Rarely, interstitial capillary endothelial cells contain previously described protozoal cysts. Multifocally, perivascular lymphatics are mildly dilated, and connective tissue is mildly separated by clear space (edema).  Multifocally there is mild interstitial hemorrhage and congestion.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:  Glomerulonephritis, endocapillary, acute, global, diffuse, mild-moderate with mild multifocal interstitial nephritis and endothelial protozoal cysts, etiology consistent with Sarcocystis sp., breed unspecified, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Renal sarcocystosis

CAUSE:  Sarcocystis sp.

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Sarcocystis sp. Intermediate hosts Definitive hosts

S. cruzi

Cattle

Dog

S. bovifelis

Cattle

Cat

S. hominis

Cattle

Human/Primate

S. gigantea

Sheep

Cat

S. tenella

Sheep

Dog

S. miescheriana

Swine

Dog

S. porcifelis

Swine

Cat

S. porchihominis

Swine

Human

S. bertrami

Horse

Dog

S. fayeri

Horse

Dog

S. neurona

Birds/horses*

Opossum

S. lindemanni

Human

Unknown

S. hemionilatrantis

Deer

Dog

S. cervi

Deer

Unknown

*horses accidental host-the cause of protozoal myeloencephalitis

REFERENCES:

  1. Alexander AB, Hanley CS, Duncan MC, et al. Management of acute renal failure with delayed hypercalcemia secondary to Sarcocystis neurona - induced myositis and rhabdomyolysis in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2015; 46(3):652-656
  2. Cooper BJ, Valentine BA. Muscle and tendons In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:234-236, 239
  3. Gardiner CH, Fayer R, Dubey JP. Apicomplexa. In: An Atlas of Protozoan Parasites in Animal Tissues. 2nd ed. Washington DC: U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998:41-46.
  4. Herd HR, Sula MM, Starkey LA, et al. Sarcocystis fayeri-induced granulomatous and eosinophilic myositis in 2 related horses. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(6):1191-1194.
  5. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 423
  6. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:228, 238-239
  7. Valentine BA. Skeletal muscle. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 927
  8. Zoll WM, Needle DB, French SJ, Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two red panda cubs (Ailurus fulgens). J Comp Pathol. 2015; 153(2-3):185-189

 


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