JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

October 2017

P-V16

 

Signalment (JPC #2055944): Sheep, breed not specified

HISTORY: Exhibited respiratory distress.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Lung: Multifocally arising from the alveolar epithelium, replacing 60% of normal pulmonary architecture and compressing adjacent alveoli (atelectasis) are variably-sized, up to 1mm diameter, unencapsulated, well-demarcated, expansile neoplastic foci composed of one or more layers of cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells which form acinar or papillary projections into alveolar lumina and are supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells have distinct cell borders, a moderate amount of finely granular, occasionally vacuolated amphophilic to lightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei with finely-stippled chromatin, and 1‑3 variably distinct nucleoli. The mitotic rate is less than 1 per 10 HPF. Multifocally, alveolar and bronchiolar lumina contain variable numbers of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils, foamy alveolar macrophages, fibrin, and edema. Multifocally, alveolar septa are mildly expanded by the previously-described inflammatory cells.  Bronchiolar epithelium is frequently hyperplastic, piling up to 6 layers thick, and contains moderate numbers of goblet cells (goblet cell metaplasia). The pleura and interlobular septa are expanded up to 5 times normal by increased clear space and ectatic lymphatics (edema) and scattered previously-described inflammatory cells.  Multifocally, there are increased numbers of bronchiole-associated lymphocytes, which occasionally form germinal centers (BALT hyperplasia).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Lung:  Pulmonary adenocarcinoma, low-grade, breed unspecified, ovine

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Retroviral pulmonary carcinomatosis

CAUSE: Betaretrovirus (Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus [JSRV])

CONDITION: Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA)

SYNONYMS: Jaagsiekte, ovine pulmonary carcinoma, pulmonary adenomatosis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

 PATHOGENESIS:

 TYPICAL CLINICAL SIGNS:

 TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:   

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Beytut E, Sözmen M, Ergínsoy S. Immunohistochemical detection of pulmonary surfactant proteins and retroviral antigens in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis. J Comp Pathol. 2009 Jan;140(1):43-53.
  2. Borobia M, De Las Heras M, Ramos JJ, Ferrer LM, Lacasta D, De Martino A, Fernández A, Loste A, Marteles D, Ortín A. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus can reach Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of lambs nursed by infected mothers. Vet Pathol. 2016 Nov;53(6):1172-1179.
  3. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. The respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Vol 2. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders;2016:560-562.
  4. De las Heras M, de Martino A, Borobia M, Ortín A, Álvarez R, Borderías L, Giménez-Más JA. Solitary tumours associated with Jaagsiekte retrovirus in sheep are heterogeneous and contain cells expressing markers identifying progenitor cells in lung repair.  J Comp Pathol. 2014 Feb-Apr;150(2-3):138-47.
  5. Griffiths DJ, Martineau HM, Cousens C. Pathology and pathogenesis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma. J Comp Pathol. 2010 May;142(4):260-83.
  6. Hudachek SF, et al. Lung Tumor Development and Spontaneous Regression in Lambs Coinfected With Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus and Ovine Lentivirus. Vet Pathol. 2010(47):148-162.
  7. Leroux C, Girard N, Cottin V, Greenland T, Mornex JF, Archer F. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV): from virus to lung cancer in sheep. Vet Res. 2007(38):211-228.
  8. İlhan F, Vural SA, Yıldırım S, Sözdutmaz İ, Alcigir ME. Expression of p53 protein, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus matrix protein, and surfactant protein in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016 May;28(3):249-56.
  9. Lofstedt J. Progressive bacterial and viral pneumonias of sheep and goats. In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2015:630-631.
  10. Lopez A, Martinson SA. The respiratory system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier;2016:553-554.
  11. Minguijon E, Gonzalez L, De las Heras M, et. al. Pathological and aetiological studies in sheep exhibiting extrathoracic metastasis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (Jaagsiekte). J Comp Pathol. 2013;148:139-147.
  12. Ortín A, Benito AA, Lacasta D, Ferrer LM, De Las Heras M. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma not related to jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in a goat. Vet Pathol. 2007(44):710-712.
  13. Rocca S, Sanna MP, Leoni A, et. al. Presence of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in tissue sections from human bronchioloalveolar carcinoma depends on patients' geographical origin. Hum Pathol. 2008(39):303-304.
  14. Sozmen M, Beytut E. An investigation of growth factors and lactoferrin in naturally occurring ovine pulmonary adenomatosis. J Comp Pathol. 2012;147:441-451.
  15. Wilson DW. Tumors of the respiratory tract. In: Meuten DJ, ed. Tumors in Domestic Animal, 5th Ed.  Ames, IA:  John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2017:493,495.


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