JPC Systemic Pathology
Digestive System
October 2018
D-P27 (NP)

SIGNALMENT (JPC #2287112): Slide A, adult cow

HISTORY:  On routine abattoir examination, meat inspectors found an enlarged, firm liver.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Replacing hepatic parenchyma and compressing remaining hepatic chords is a marked increase in the number of bile ducts (biliary hyperplasia), which often form islands or lobules, concentrically surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue, up to 50 um thick and populated by low to moderate numbers of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, fewer plasma cells, and small amounts of hemorrhage and basophilic granular material (mineral). Focally an ectatic duct contains a section of a 0.25 mm wide adult trematode with a thin outer tegument overlying a band of somatic musculature, a parenchymatous matrix, and a uterus with numerous, asymmetrical, dark-brown, 100 x 40 um, singly operculated, thick-shelled eggs containing miracidia.  In less affected parenchyma, multifocally expanding portal and centrilobular zones are dense collagen and reactive fibroblasts that often connect adjacent portal areas (bridging fibrosis), admixed with proliferating biliary epithelium forming small bile ducts (biliary ductular reaction) and previously described inflammatory cells, hemorrhage and mineralization.  Adjacent to bands of fibrosis, there are few individualized hepatocytes that are shrunken with decreased cytoplasm (atrophy).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver:  Cholangiohepatitis, fibrosing, lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic, chronic, multifocal, moderate, with cholangiectasia, marked biliary hyperplasia, bridging portal fibrosis and intraductal adult trematodes, breed unspecified, bovine

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Hepatic dicrocoeliasis

CAUSE:  Dicrocoelium dendriticum

CONDITION:  Distomiasis

SYNONYMS:  Lancet fluke disease; old world fluke disease

SIGNALMENT (JPC #3104055EV-UFMG 258-08):  Slide B, Adult female intact domestic shorthair cat

HISTORY: None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Expanding portal areas and compressing adjacent sinusoids and hepatic cords are ectactic bile ducts with hyperplastic epithelium which often forms small papillary projections (biliary hyperplasia), surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue up to 50 um thick, which replaces hepatic parenchyma, and is populated with eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, fewer plasma cells and contains small amounts of hemorrhage. Focally a duct contains a section of a 0.25 mm wide adult trematode with a thin outer tegument overlying a band of somatic musculature, a parenchymatous matrix, and a uterus with numerous, asymmetrical, yellow-brown, 100 x 40 um, singly operculated, thick-shelled eggs containing miracidia.  Within the fibrous connective tissue surrounding ectatic bile ducts are increased numbers of bile ductules (biliary hyperplasia).  In less affected parenchyma, multifocally expanding portal and centrilobular areas is fibrous connective tissue that often connects adjacent portal areas (bridging fibrosis), admixed with increased numbers of small bile ducts (biliary ductular reaction) and previously described inflammatory cells, hemorrhage and mineralization.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  1. Liver: Cholangiohepatitis, lymphoplasmacytic, and eosinophilic, multifocal, moderate with cholangiectasia, biliary hyperplasia, bridging portal fibrosis and intraductal adult trematodes, domestic shorthair, feline.

CONDITION:  Platynosomiasis

CAUSE: Platynosomum fastosum

SYNONYMS: Lizard poisoning

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

LIFE CYCLE: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:  

For Gross Lesions:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Parasites of the pancreatic duct

REFERENCES:

  1. Bowman DD. In: Bowman DD, ed. Georgis’ Parasitology for Veterinarians. 10th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:3,133-134.
  2. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJV, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:446-447.
  3. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ.  Liver and biliary system.  In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Ltd; 2016:320-324.
  4. Hamir AN, Smith BB. Severe biliary hyperplasia associated with liver fluke infection in an adult alpaca. Vet Pathol. 2002;39(5):592–594.
  5. Hilbe M, Robert N, Pospischil A, Gerspach C. Pulmonary arterial lesions in new world camelids in association with Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Vet Pathol. 2015;52(6):1202-1209.
  6. Pinto HA, Mati VLT, deMelo AL. New insights into the life cycle of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae). Parasitol Res. 2014;113:2701–2707.


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