JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
SPECIAL SENSES SYSTEM
April 2018
S-M13

Signalment (AFIP #1744913):  Breed and gender not specified, 17-year-old cat 

HISTORY:  This cat had bilateral retinal hemorrhage and systemic hypertension.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Eye: The retina is diffusely thinned with loss of the photoreceptor layer; pseudocyst formation (up to 1X0.5mm) in the photoreceptor layer; 75% reduction of the inner nuclear layer; loss of ganglion cells; vacuolation of the nerve fiber layer or plexiform layer (spongiosis or axonal degeneration).  Focally, the retinal architecture is completely obscured by hemorrhage and fibrin admixed with low numbers of fibroblasts and scattered macrophages containing phagocytized erythrocytes and golden-brown granular pigment (hemosiderin).  Multifocally, the tunica media of vessels in the retina and choroid is moderately thickened and variably expanded by brightly eosinophilic, hyalinized homogenous material (hyalinization).  Occasionally smaller retinal and choroidal vessels are surrounded by increased clear space (edema), and there is choroidal sclerosis and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium.  There is multifocal hypertrophy of the retina pigment epithelium (retinal detachment).  The heavily pigmented epithelium of the posterior iris forms several knob-like projections that frequently have a clear center (pigmented iridal cysts).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Eye, retina:  Degeneration, diffuse, marked with detachment, choroidal and retinal vascular hyalinization, focal hemorrhage, and photoreceptor layer pseudocysts, breed unspecified, feline.

CONDITION:  Hypertensive retinopathy

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Retinal disease in cats:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References:

  1. Bodey AR, Sansom J. Epidemiological study of blood pressure in domestic cats. J Small Anim Pract. 1998;39(12):567-73.
  2. Crispin SM, Mould JRB. Systemic hypertensive disease and the feline fundus. Vet Ophthalmol. 2001;4(2):131-40.
  3. Dubielzig RR, Ketring KL, McLellan GJ, Albert DM. The retina. In: Veterinary Ocular Pathology: A Comparative Review.  Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:370-373.
  4. Juan-Sallés C, Ramos-Vara JA, Garner MM. Pheochromocytoma in six New World primates. Vet Pathol. 2009;46(4):662-6.
  5. Komáromy AM, Andrew SE, Denis HM, et al. Hypertensive retinopathy and choroidopathy in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol. 2004;7(1):3-9.
  6. Labelle P. The eye. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:1308.
  7. Leblanc NL, Stepien RL, Bentley E. Ocular lesions associated with systemic hypertension in dogs: 65 cases (2005-2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011;238(7):915-21.
  8. Maggio F, DeFrancesco TC, Atkins CE, et al. Ocular lesions associated with systemic hypertension in cats: 69 cases (1985-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000;217(5):695-702.
  9. Miller AD, Masek-Hammerman K, Dalecki K. Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of pheochromocytoma in 6 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Vet Pathol. 2009;46(6):1221-9.
  10. Peter S, Dietrich H, Wick G. Investigations for retinopathy in an avian model for systemic sclerosis. Exp Eye Res. 2004;79(1):85-92.
  11. Sansom J, Rogers K, Wood JLN: Blood pressure assessment in healthy cats and cats with hypertensive retinopathy. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65(2):245-52.
  12. Stiles J. Feline ophthalmology.  In: Gelatt KN, Gilger BC, Kern TJ, eds. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 4th ed., Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons; 2013:1530-1532.
  13. Wilcock BP; Njaa BL: Special senses. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:472-473.


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