JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTRY SYSTEM

October 2013

I-M18

 

Signalment (JPC# 2367492):  Pig

HISTORY:  This pig had been on an experimental zinc deficient diet since weaning.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin:  Diffusely, the stratum corneum is expanded up to 200 µm by lamellations of keratin with retained nuclei (parakeratotic hyperkeratosis). There is marked epidermal hyperplasia with anastomosing rete ridges and projections that interdigitate with the corneal layer (papillated hyperplasia); thickening of the stratum spinosum (acanthosis); and intercellular edema with prominent intercellular bridges (spongiosis).   Multifocally, hair follicles exhibit similar changes including epithelial hyperplasia and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis.  Follicular ostia and infundibula are often ectatic and variably filled with lamellations of keratin admixed with many viable and degenerate neutrophils, eosinophils, fragmented hair shafts, necrotic debris and few 1-2 µm cocci (luminal folliculitis).  Occasionally inflammatory cells transmigrate the follicular epithelium (mural folliculitis).  Multifocally within the superficial dermis there are low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages with fewer eosinophils and neutrophils.  There is mild, periadnexal and perivascular edema and mildly ectatic apocrine glands.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin:  Hyperkeratosis, parakeratotic, epidermal and follicular, diffuse, marked, with epidermal and follicular hyperplasia, and mild lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis and folliculitis, breed unspecified, porcine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Zinc-responsive parakeratosis or dermatoses

CAUSE:  Zinc deficient diet, impaired zinc absorption / metabolism

CONDITION:  Zinc deficiency

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

Gross differentials in the pig:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Dogs

Gross differentials of diffuse hyperkeratosis in the dog:

Histological differentials of diffuse hyperkeratosis in the dog:

Ruminants (goats, sheep, cattle, alpacas, llamas):

Equine:

REFERENCES: 

  1. Campbell GA, Crow D. Severe zinc responsive dermatosis in a litter of pharaoh hounds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22(4):663-666.
  2. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK. Diseases of the dermis. In: Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional; 2005:188-191.
  3. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. The integument. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012:1065-1066.
  4. Maudlin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: 532-533, 584-586. 
  5. Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell GA. Muller & Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co.; 2013: 583, 689-692.
  6. Outerbridge, CA. Cutaneous manifestations of internal diseases.  Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013; 43(1):141-142.
  7. Romanucci M, Bongiovanni L, et al. Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of canine zinc-responsive dermatosis. Vet Dermatol. 2011(1):31-38.
  8. Scott DW, Vogel JW, Fleis RI, Miller WH Jr, Smith MC. Skin diseases in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos): a literature review and retrospective analysis of 68 cases (Cornell university 1997-2006). Vet Dermatol. 2011; 22(1):2-16.


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