JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
February 2019
E-V01 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #1848505):  14-day-old Duroc pig   

HISTORY:  Suckling pigs and sows were sick.  Only the suckling pigs died following a disease characterized by anorexia, depression, diarrhea or constipation, and staggering gait.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: 

  1. Adrenal gland:  Multifocally affecting 10% of the cortex, medulla and the corticomedullary junction are individual to coalescing areas of lytic necrosis, up to 0.5 by 0.3 mm, characterized by loss of normal architecture with replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris.  Primarily on the periphery of the necrotic foci, there are multifocal cortical cells that contain an eosinophilic, 2-6 um, round to oval, intranuclear viral inclusion body that often marginates the chromatin.  There is scattered single cell necrosis characterized by cells that are shrunken, hypereosinophilic, with pyknotic nuclei.  There are few viable and degenerate neutrophils scattered within the cortex, minimal multifocal hemorrhage, and rare mitotic figures within the zona glomerulosa.
  2. Eye (not present on all slides): There are focally extensive areas of predominantly neutrophilic inflammation admixed with necrotic debris and variably sized aggregates of basophilic, mixed bacteria that replace the corneal epithelium (ulceration) and the corneal stroma (keratitis).  Corneal stromal fibers are disorganized and often separated by increased clear space (edema), reactive fibroblasts, low numbers of lymphocytes, macrophages and small caliber blood vessels (vascularization).  Diffusely, the bulbar conjunctiva is similarly affected.  Multifocally, there are colonies of 1 um diameter cocci along the conjunctival surface.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Adrenal gland, cortex:  Adrenalitis, necrotizing, acute, multifocal, moderate, with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusion bodies, Duroc, porcine.
  2. Eye, cornea and bulbar conjunctiva: Keratoconjunctivitis, necrosuppurative, acute, diffuse, with edema and vascularization.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Alphaherpesviral adrenal necrosis

CAUSE:  Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1)

CONDITION / SYNONYMS:  Pseudorabies;Aujeszky’s Disease; Mad Itch; infectious bulbar paralysis; porcine herpesvirus infection

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: (Adrenal cortical necrosis)

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

REFERENCES:    

  1. Cantile C, Youssef S. Nervous system. In: Maxie MG , ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:370-372.
  2. MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 4th ed. London, UK: Academic Press; 2017: 206-208.
  3. Mettenleiter TC, Ehlers B, Muller T, Yoon K-J, Teifke JP. Herpesviruses. In: Zimmerman JJ, Karriker LA, Ramirez A, Schwartz KJ, Stevenson GW, eds., Disease of Swine. 10th ed., Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2012:424-434.
  4. Miller AD, Zachary JF. Nervous system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:889.
  5. Rosol TJ, Grone A. Endocrine glands. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:340.
  6. Schöniger S, Klose K, Werner H, Schwarz BA. Nonsuppurative encephalitis in a dog. Vet Pathol. 2012; 49(4): 731-4.
  7. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 224-225.


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |