JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
January 2019
R-P01

Signalment (JPC #2019265):  3-year-old post-partum Suffolk ewe

HISTORY:  This ewe delivered 2 lambs estimated to be 10 days premature and dead in utero for about one day.  There were no gross lesions in the fetuses.  The cotyledons had multiple 1-2 mm white nodules.  The intercotyledonary placenta was normal.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Placenta, cotyledon:  Affecting 70% of this section, there is both coagulative and lytic necrosis of the cotyledon characterized by complete loss of villar trophoblasts and replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris, aggregates of a deeply basophilic material (mineral), scattered hemorrhage and fibrin.  Multifocally, low numbers of trophoblasts adjacent to necrotic foci are expanded by a parsitophorous vacuole containing clusters of approximately 2x3 um oval, pale basophilic, apicomplexan tachyzoites.  Diffusely, less affected villi are expanded by edema and low numbers of lymphocytes, fewer plasma cells and macrophages and occasional degenerate neutrophils.  Multifocally, the chorioallantoic connective tissue is expanded by fibrin and low numbers of similar inflammatory cells.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Placenta, cotyledon:  Placentitis, necrotizing, subacute, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, with intratrophoblastic apicomplexan tachyzoites, Suffolk ewe, ovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Placental toxoplasmosis

CAUSE:  Toxoplasma gondii

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

LIFE CYCLE:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

For abortion in sheep:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Benavides J, Fernandez M, Castano P, Ferreras MC, Ortega-Mora L, Perez V. Ovine Toxoplasmosis: A New Look at its Pathogenesis. J Comp Path. 2017 Jul:157(1):34-38.
  2. Dubey JP, Johnson JE, Hanson MA, Pierce V. Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014;45(2):461-464.
  3. Foster RA. Female reproductive system and mammae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1183.
  4. Gutierrez J, O’Donovan J, Proctor A, et al. Application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24(5):846-854.
  5. Hazlett MJ, McDowall R, DeLay J, et al. A prospective study of sheep and goat abortion using real-time polymerase chain reaction and cut point estimation shows Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus infection concurrently with other major pathogens. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013;25(3):359-368.
  6. Juan-Salles C, Mainez M, Marco A, Sanchis AM. Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23(5):1041-1045.
  7. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female genital system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2016:420-421.
  8. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:238-239.


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