JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
January 2018
U-M18

SIGNALMENT (JPC#1549488):  Dog, age and breed unknown

HISTORY:  Dog was euthanized due to persistent vomiting and halitosis.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Multifocally, throughout the section, glomeruli, tubules and vessels within both the cortex and medulla are widely separated, surrounded and replaced by fibroblasts and abundant collagen (interstitial fibrosis).  Medullary and cortical tubules and collecting ducts contain one or more of the following changes: marked tortuosity; ectasia with attenuated epithelium; atrophy; epithelial degeneration characterized by swollen, vacuolated cells; epithelial necrosis characterized by shrunken and hypereosinophilic cells with pyknosis; crowded (hyperplastic) or hypertrophied epithelium with abundant basophilic cytoplasm and large vesiculate nuclei (regeneration); mineralization of the basement membrane; and lumina which contain varying amounts of brightly eosinophilic homogenous material (proteinosis), necrotic cellular debris, or occasional basophilic granular aggregates (mineral).  Papillary ducts are often dilated and tortuous. Glomeruli often exhibit one or more of the following changes: periglomerular fibrosis and/or mineralization; hypertrophy of the parietal epithelium; adherence between the visceral epithelium and the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsule (synechia); and frequent segmental to global increases in mesangial matrix with obliteration of capillary lumina (glomerular sclerosis) progressing to shrunken, hyalinized and hypocellular glomerular tufts (obsolescence).  Multifocally, primarily within the cortex, there are interstitial aggregates of few to moderate numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells.  The tunica muscularis of small to medium arterioles multifocally exhibits mild smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia and there is scattered perivascular edema.  The capsule is irregular with multifocal mineralization. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:  Fibrosis, interstitial, multifocal to coalescing, marked, chronic, with tubular atrophy, necrosis, loss, regeneration, mineralization and proteinosis; glomerular sclerosis and obsolescence; periglomerular fibrosis and mineralization; and mild lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis, breed unspecified, canine.

CONDITION:  End stage kidney; chronic renal failure; end stage renal disease (ESRD)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH, eds. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2016: 102, 157
  2. Breshears MA, Conferin AW. The urinary system. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 637, 640-641
  3. Brown CA, Elliott J, Schmiedt CW, et al. Chronic kidney disease in aged cats: clinical features, morphology, and proposed pathogeneses. Vet Pathol. 2016; 53(2): 309-326.
  4. Cianciolo RE, Benali SL, Aresu L. Aging in the canine kidney. Vet Pathol. 2016; 53(2): 299-308
  5. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 383-387, 407-409
  6. Craig LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Bones and joints. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 61-64, 74-75, 77
  7. Delaney MA, Kinsel MJ, Treuting PM. Renal pathology in a nontraditional aging model: the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). Vet Pathol. 2016; 53(2): 493-503
  8. Ferguson DC, Hoenig M. Endocrine System. In: Latimer KS, ed. Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011: 295-304.
  9. Hardcastle MR, Dittmer KE. Fibroblast growth factor 23: a new dimension to diseases of calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(5): 770-784.
  10. LaDouceur EE, Davis B, Tseng F. A retrospective study of end-stage renal disease in captive polar bears (Ursus maritiumus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014; 45(1):69-77.
  11. Khan TM, Khan KNM. Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(3): 441-444
  12. McLeland SM, Cianciolo RE, Duncan CG, et al. A comparison of biochemical and histopathologic staging in cats with chronic kidney disease. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(3): 524-534.
  13. Tripathi NK, Gregory CR, Latimer KS. Urinary system. In: Latimer ed. Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011: 279-280.

 


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