JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
December 2017
U-B03

Signalment (JPC #1619844):  Tissue from an 80-pound pig.

HISTORY (Slide B03A):   This pig is one of several among a drove of 40 with clinical signs of fever, lethargy, anorexia, and prostration.  Necropsy findings include a swollen, hyperemic liver with petechiation of the kidneys and endocardium.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Multifocally the cortical and medullary interstitium is infiltrated by numerous lymphocytes, plasma cells, fewer neutrophils and macrophages that occasionally contain hemosiderin, fibrin, and edema.  Tubules are multifocally ectatic with variable numbers of luminal viable and degenerate neutrophils, necrotic debris, and eosinophilic proteinaceous material.  Multifocally, renal tubular epithelium exhibit one or more of the following changes: attenuation; hypertrophy with microvacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration); hypereosinopilic, angular and shrunken with nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, or karyolysis (necrosis); or increased cytoplasmic basophilia, enlarged vesiculate nuclei, and rare mitotic figures (regeneration). Within the pelvis, the perivascular adventitia is loosely-arranged, with increased clear space and ectatic lymphatics (edema), admixed with scattered lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages.  There is mild multifocal dilation of the urinary space of bowman’s capsule and hypertrophy of the parietal epithelium.

Liver:  No significant findings.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:  Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, and lymphoplasmacytic, subacute, multifocal, moderate, with tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration, breed unspecified, porcine

Signalment (JPC #1255787):  Tissue from a 13-year-old male Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus).

HISTORY (Slide B-03B):  This non-human primate died after a one-day illness with lethargy and prostration.  Necropsy findings include icterus and widespread visceral ecchymotic hemorrhage and hepatomegaly.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Kidney:  Multifocally, the cortical interstitium is infiltrated predominately by lymphocytes, plasma cells, with fewer neutrophils and rare macrophages, admixed with fibrin and edema. Tubules are often ectatic with varying amounts of viable and degenerate neutrophils, sloughed epithelial cells, cellular debris, eosinophilic proteinaceous material, hemorrhage and fibrin.  Multifocally, tubular epithelial cells are either swollen with microvacuolated cytoplasm (degeneration), hypereosinophilic, angular and shrunken with pyknosis, karyorrhexis or nuclear loss (necrosis); or have increased cytoplasmic basophilia, enlarged vesiculate nuclei and rare mitotic figures (regeneration). There is mild multifocal dilation of the urinary space of bowman’s capsule and hypertrophy of the parietal epithelium.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Kidney:  Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, neutrophilic and lymphoplasmacytic, subacute, multifocal, mild, with tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration, Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus), non-human primate

(Slide B03C) Kidney (Warthin-Starry):  There are moderate numbers of 1 – 2 um x 7 – 10 um  spiral shaped argyrophilic bacteria (spirochetes) within tubular epithelial cells. 

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Renal leptospirosis

CAUSELeptospira sp.

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Interstitial nephritis:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY [Species, (host-adapted serovars)]:

REFERENCES

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  2. Breshears MA, Conferin AW. The urinary system. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 632, 673, 675-677
  3. Brogden KA. Cytopathology of pathogenic prokaryotes. In: Cheville NF, ed. Ultrastructural Pathology: The Comparative Cellular Basis of Disease. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2009:505-507
  4. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:433-439
  5. Grayzel SE, DeBess EE. Characterization of leptospirosis among dogs in Oregon, 2007-2011. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016; 248(8):908-915
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  8. Monahan AM, Callanan JJ, Nally JE. Review paper: host-pathogen interactions in the kidney during chronic leptospirosis. Vet Pathol. 2009:46(5):792-799.
  9. Rajeev S, Conan A, Pratt N, et al. High Leptospira seroprevalence in captive and wild-caught vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabeus) on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017; 29(6): 930-934
  10. Rissi DR, Brown CA. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014;26(6):799-804.
  11. Sykes JE, Hartmann K, Lunn KF. 2010 ACVIM animal consensus statement on leptospirosis: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention. J Vet Intern Med. 2011; 25:1-13.
  12. Wynwood SJ, Burns MA, Graham GC, et al. Leptospirosis in Tasmanian Devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) in Tasmania, 2008-2012. J Wildl Dis. 2016; 52(3): 636-641
  13. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infection. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 157, 180-181

 


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