JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
August 2018
D-B10

SIGNALMENT (JPC #1575721):  Adult coturnix quail

HISTORY:  The animal was on display in a zoo.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Effacing and replacing over 90% of normal architecture and multifocally elevating the capsule are numerous variably sized, up to 1 mm diameter, coalescing granulomas.  Granulomas are composed of a necrotic central core of brightly eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris surrounded by numerous epithelioid macrophages and multinucleate giant cells of both Langhans and foreign body type, admixed with fibrin and further surrounded by hypertrophied, reactive fibroblasts and concentric fibrous connective tissue admixed with numerous lymphocytes and plasma cells.  Moderate numbers of 1x2 um amphophilic bacilli are present extracellularly within the central necrotic cores as well as within the cytoplasm of multinucleate giant cells.  Diffusely between granulomas, hepatocytes are surrounded and individualized by, or lost with replacement by, abundant fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) and increased numbers of small bile ducts (biliary ductular reaction).  Diffusely, the small amount of remaining hepatic plate/cord architecture is disorganized.

Slide B10-B (Acid-fast):  Liver:  Multifocally, within areas of lytic necrosis and cytoplasm of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, are low to moderate numbers of acid-fast 1x2 um bacilli.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver:  Granulomas, multifocal to coalescing, marked, with marked fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, and moderate numbers of intrahistiocytic and extracellular acid-fast bacilli, etiology consistent with Mycobacterium spp., Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix), avian.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Hepatic mycobacteriosis

CAUSE:  Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAIC)

CONDITION:  Avian mycobacteriosis

SYNONYMS:  Avian tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

For nodular lesions in birds:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

References:

  1. Alexander KA, Laver PN, Williams MC, et al. Pathology of the Emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi, in the Banded Mongoose ( Mungos mungo). Vet Pathol. 2018;55(2):303-309.
  2. Barandiaran S, Vivot MM, Falzoni E, et. al. Mycobacterioses in dogs and cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.  Jour Vet Diagn Invest.  2017;29(5):729-732.
  3. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 72, 186, 227, 282.
  4. Beck A, Spicic S, Butorovic-Dujmovic M, et. al. Mucocutaneous inflammatory pseudotumors in simultaneous Mycobacterium avium avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection in a cat.  J Comp Pathol. 2015;153(4):227-230.
  5. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJ, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 442-443.
  6. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:547-551.
  7. Fulton RM. Bacterial diseases.  In: Boulianne M., ed. Avian Disease Manual. 7th Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists; 2013:77-79.
  8. Hargis AM, Myers S. The integument.  In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1076-1077.
  9. Lopez A, Martinson SA. Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 528, 544, 547, 550.
  10. Pekkarinen H, Airas N, Savolinen LE, et. al. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria can cause disseminated mycobacteriosis in cats.  J Comp Path.  2018;160:1-9.
  11. Robveille C, Albaric O, Gaide N, Abadie J. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.  J Vet Diagn Invest.  2015;27(6):767-771.
  12. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:194-197.


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