JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
DECEMBER 2018
D-V27

Signalment (JPC# 2424206):  A golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)

HISTORY:  This animal was found on the floor of a large indoor jungle exhibit in a depressed state.  It did not respond to supportive therapy and died 30 minutes later.  Its mate had died a few days earlier.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Affecting up 30% of the hepatic parenchyma, there are multifocal, random areas of hepatocellular necrosis characterized by loss of hepatic cord architecture and individualization of hepatocytes surrounded by small amounts of necrotic debris, as well as individual shrunken, hypereosinophilic hepatocytes that exhibit karyorrhexis, karyolysis or pyknosis.  Hepatocytes adjacent to areas of necrosis are often degenerate, characterized by pale, swollen microvacuolated cytoplasm.  Multiple random foci of hepatocytes contain a single, discrete, round cytoplasmic vacuole that often displaces the nucleus (macrovesicular vacuolar degeneration, lipid type). Frequently within the cytoplasm of degenerate hepatocytes, and occasionally within Kupffer cells or free in sinusoids, there are round 5-8 um diameter acidophilic bodies.  Within affected areas there are few mitotic figures. Multifocally within portal areas, there are low numbers of lymphocytes, fewer neutrophils and rare plasma cells.  Diffusely hepatocytes are mildly swollen, multifocally compressing sinusoids and containing abundant brown to black granular to globular pigment (hemosiderin, normal in this species). 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver:  Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, acute, random, multifocal, moderate, with acidophilic bodies, golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), non-human primate.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Arenaviral hepatitis

CAUSE:  Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (arenavirus)

CONDITION:  Callitrichid hepatitis (CH)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Hepatocellular necrosis in nonhuman primates:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents & Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016:23-25, 178, 220.
  2. Brady AG, Carville AL. Digestive System Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee, ed. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Volume 2. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Inc; 2012:612.
  3. Montali RJ, Scanga CA, Pernikoff D, et al. A common-source outbreak of callitrichid hepatitis in captive tamarins and marmosets. J Infect Dis. 1993;167:946-950.
  4. Montali RJ, Connolly BM, Armstrong DL, Scanga CA, Holmes KV. Pathology and immunology of callitrichid hepatitis, an emerging disease of captive new world primates caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Am J Path 1995; 148(5):144-149.
  5. Schulman FY, Montali RJ, Bush M, et al. Dubin-Johnson-like syndrome in Golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia). Vet Pathol. 1993; 30:491-498.
  6. Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Viral Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. In: Abee, ed. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases. Volume 2. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Inc; 2012:54-56.


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