JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-T11

Signalment (JPC# 2414736):  1-year-old Angus/Hereford cross cow

HISTORY:  This cow was one of a group of 17 found in sternal recumbency.  This cow died several hours after having been found.  The pasture in which the cow had been kept bordered a glacial lake that was covered by a thick layer of green algae the day before the heifer was discovered.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  Diffusely there is centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular degneration, necrosis and loss characterized by dissociation of hepatic cords with replacement by abundant hemorrhage, admixed with eosinophilic and karryorhectic cellular debris, occasional degenerate neutrophils, and Kupffer cells.  Remaining centrilobular to midzonal hepatocytes are often individualized, rounded, with hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis or karyolysis (necrosis).  Multifocally, hepatocellular necrosis extends to and involves periportal hepatocytes of the limiting plate.  Less affected periportal hepatocytes are often swollen with vacuolated cytoplasm and large vesiculate nuclei (degeneration).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Liver, hepatocytes:  Necrosis and loss, acute, centrilobular to midzonal (submassive), diffuse, severe, with hemorrhage, Angus/Hereford cross, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Microcystin-LR hepatic toxicosis

CAUSE:  Microcystin-LR toxin (produced by Microcystis aeruginosa)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJ, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:449.
  2. Cantor GH, Beckonertz O, Bollard, ME et al. Integrated histopathological and urinary  metabonomic investigation of the pathogenesis of Microcystin-LR toxicosis.Vet Pathol. 2013;50(1):59-71.
  3. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ. Liver and Biliary System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 285, 330.
  4. Puschner B, Hoff B, Tor E. Diagnosis of anatoxin-A poisoning in dogs from North America. J Vet Diagn Invest 2008;20:89-92.
  5. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Blood DC, Hinchcliff KW. Veterinary Medicine. 9th ed. New York NY: Saunders;2000:1701-1703.
  6. Simola O, Wiberg M, Jokela J, Wahlsten M, Sivonen K, Syrjä P. Pathologic findings and toxin identification in cyanobacterial (Nodularia spumigena) intoxication in a dog. Vet Pathol 2012;49: 755-59.


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