JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
January 2019
R-N07

Signalment (JPC# 997552):  Rabbit

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Uterus:  Multifocally and transmurally infiltrating and effacing the uterus is an unencapsulated, densely cellular, poorly demarcated neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in tubules, acini, and solidly cellular areas on a variably dense collagenous to myxomatous matrix (desmoplasia).  Neoplastic cells have indistinct cell borders, a small amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm, a round to oval nucleus with finely stippled chromatin, and indistinct nucleoli.  There is mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, and less than one mitotic figure per ten 40x HPF.  Tubules are ectatic with fronds of neoplastic cell bulging into the lumen, and are often filled with eosinophilic proteinaceous and/or mucinous material admixed with variable amounts of necrotic cellular debris.  Multifocally, there are neoplastic cells within uterine lymphatic vessels.  There are multifocal areas of coagulative necrosis with loss of differential staining and retention of architecture, as well as multifocal areas of lytic necrosis, characterized by loss of tissue architecture and replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris admixed with low numbers of lymphocytes, heterophils, and hemorrhage.  Within several cross sections of the uterus, the endometrium is hyperplastic forming papillary projections often lined by epithelium that piles up two to three layers thick.  Multifocally hyperplastic glands are markedly ectatic forming cystic structures and are lined by attenuated epithelium (cystic endometrial hyperplasia).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Uterus: Adenocarcinoma, breed unspecified rabbit, lagomorph.
  2. Uterus, endometrium: Hyperplasia, cystic, diffuse, moderate.

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Other causes of uterine enlargement:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Asakawa MG, Goldschmidt MH, Une Y, Normura Y. The immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen receptor-α and progesterone receptors of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic endometrium in 88 pet rabbits. Vet Pathol 2008;45:217-225.
  2. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016:320.
  3. Bertram CA, Muller K, Klopfleisch R. Gental Tact Pathology in Female Pet Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): Retrospective Study of 854 Necropsy Examinations and 152 Biopsy Samples. J Comp Pathol. 2018 Oct;164:17-26.
  4. Carpenter NA, Crook EK. Mammary Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Male Bornean Orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2017 Mar;48(1):224-227.
  5. Foster RA. Female Reproductive System and Mammae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1168, 1178.
  6. Kennedy PC, Cullen JM, Edwards JF, Goldschmidt MH, Larsen S, Munson L, Nielsen S. In: Schulman FY, ed. Histological classification of tumors of the genital system of domestic animals. Vol 4. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998:31-33.
  7. Laik-Schandelmaier C, Klopfleisch R, Schoniger S, et al. Sponteneous Arising Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of the Cervix and Uterus in 83 Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus). J Comp Path. 2017 May;156(4):339-351.
  8. Pare JA, Paul-Murphy J. Disorders of the reproductive and urinary systems. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2004:183-184.
  9. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female Genital System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 449-450.
  10. Weisbroth SH: Neoplastic diseases. In: Manning PJ, Ringler DH, Newcomer CE, eds. The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd ed.   San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1994: 262-265.
  11. Woodhouse SJ, Hanley CS. What is your diagnosis? Uterine Adenocarcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011: 238(3):289-90
  12. Willson CJ, Herbert RA, Cline JM. Hormone receptor expression in spontaneous uterine adenocarcinoma in Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2015;43(6):865-71.


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