JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM
April 2018
H-V10

SIGNALMENT (AFIP # 2286727): 9-year-old male Appaloosa

HISTORY: This horse presented with anorexia, ataxia, behavioral changes, and photosensitivity.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Liver: Diffusely, portal areas are moderately infiltrated by lymphocytes and plasma cells that extend into and expand the sinusoids and multifocally infiltrate the capsule. Hepatocytes are multifocally separated, individualized, lost and replaced by the infiltrate.  There are multifocal areas of hepatocellular vacuolization (degeneration). Increased numbers of Kupffer cells and macrophages scattered throughout the sinusoids or in portal areas contain intracytoplasmic, fragmented erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis) or yellow-brown, granular cytoplasmic pigment (hemosiderin).  There are multifocal areas of hemorrhage. Multifocally, bile canaliculi are distended with green-brown, globular material (bile stasis).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Liver: Hepatitis, lymphoplasmacytic, portal, diffuse, moderate, with erythrophagocytosis, hemosiderosis, and mild hepatocellular degeneration and loss, Appaloosa, equine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Lentiviral hepatitis

CAUSE: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), equine lentivirus

CONDITION: Equine infectious anemia

SYNONYMS: Swamp fever

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

For anemia in the horse:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Lentiviruses:

References:

  1. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone marrow, blood cells, and the lymphoid/lymphatic system: In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:758.
  2. Campbell RSF, Robinson WF. The comparative pathology of lentiviruses. J Comp Path. 1998;119:333-395.
  3. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH, Gruenberg W. Veterinary Medicine; a Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2017:795-799.
  4. Cullinane A, et al. Diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia during the 2006 outbreak in Ireland. Vet Rec. 2007;161(2):647-652.
  5. Valli VEO, Kiupel M, Bienzle D. Hematopoietic system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. 6th ed. Vol 3, Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2016:114-116.
  6. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections: In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2017:218.


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