JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
Cardiovascular system
April 2019
C-M11

SIGNALMENT (JPC #3106248): 4-year old female Santa Gertrudis cow

HISTORY: 2 week duration of illness with appetite changes and scours

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Heart: Diffusely the pericardium and epicardium are thickened up to 1 cm by reactive/hypertrophied fibroblasts separated by fibromyxomatous connective tissue, collagen and many perpendicularly arranged, irregularly spaced, small caliber blood vessels (granulation tissue). Multifocally, and generally more superficially, there are areas of eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis) admixed with viable and degenerate neutrophils, macrophages, erythrocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Adhered to the superficial pericardium is a variably thick mat of pale eosinophilic, homogenous to fibrillar material (fibrin) with multifocal large colonies of 2 µm coccobacilli admixed with numerous viable and degenerate neutrophils, macrophages, erythrocytes and fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells. Multifocally cardiac myocytes within the subepicardial myocardium are separated by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells and increased clear space (edema). Diffusely, epicardial adipocytes are separated by variable amounts of fibrous connective tissue and often exhibit variation in cell size (atrophy).  Multifocally within the myocardium are single, oval, 40 x 60 µm cysts containing numerous, elongate, 3 x 10 µm basophilic bradyzoites (Sarcocystis spp.).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:

  1. Heart: Pericarditis and epicarditis, fibrinosuppurative, diffuse, severe with numerous superficial coccobacilli, Santa Gertrudis, bovine.   
  2. Heart, myocardium: Sarcocysts 

CAUSE: Penetrating cardiac trauma

CONDITION: Traumatic pericarditis

SYNONYMS: Hardware disease, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP), fibrinous traumatic reticuloperitonitis, purulent pericarditis, fibrinous pericarditis, traumatic reticulitis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Traumatic pericarditis:

Infectious pericarditis:

References:

  1. Braun U. Traumatic pericarditis in cattle: Clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings. Vet J. 2009;182:176-186.
  2. Buczinski S, Francoz D, Fecteau G, DiFruscia R. Heart disease in cattle with clinical signs of heart failure: 59 cases. Can Vet J. 2010;51:1123-1129.
  3. Francoz D, Guard CL. Traumatic reticuloperitonitis (hardware disease, traumatic reticulitis). In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 805-807.
  4. Mohamed T. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic findings in 40 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with traumatic pericarditis. Vet Rec. 2010;167:819-824.
  5. Reef VB, McGuirk SM. Diseases of the Cardiovascular System. In: Smith BP, ed. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 446-450.
  6. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular System and Lymphatic Vessels In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:595-599,606.
  7. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:38-39.
  8. Ziegler J, Parrish S, Snekvik K, Barrington G. Traumatic gastroperitonitis (hardware disease) in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44(1):163-166.


Click the slide to view.



Click on image for diagnostic series.



Back | Home | Contact Us | Links | Help |