JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
September 2018
D-M13

Signalment (JPC 2458719):  12-week-old male Golden Retriever

HISTORY:  This dog presented for acute onset of ataxia, disorientation, vomiting, drooling, collapse, and apparent blindness.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Liver:  There is diffuse lobular hypoplasia characterized by small lobules, small hepatocytes, and numerous closely opposed portal triads.  Central veins are often indistinct.  Diffusely, portal triads contain multiple tortuous arterioles (arteriolar hyperplasia), minimally increased numbers of bile ducts       (bile duct hyperplasia), and inapparent portal veins (portal vein hypoplasia).  There is rare individualization of brightly eosinophilic hepatocytes admixed with karyorrhectic debris (single cell necrosis). Multifocally there are few aggregates of hemosiderin and lipid laden macrophages (lipogranulomas).  There are random aggregates of few neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages in portal areas.  Peripheral sinusoids are mildly congested.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Liver:  Lobular hypoplasia, diffuse, severe, with hepatocellular atrophy, venous hypoplasia, and arteriolar hyperplasia, Golden Retriever, canine.
  2. Liver: Hepatitis, neutrophilic and histiocytic, multifocal, random, minimal. 

CONDITION:  Congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS)

GENERAL:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:  The following have similar microscopic changes, but differ from congenital PSS in that they can cause portal hypertension:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Baade S, Aupperle H, Grevel V, Schoon H-A. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of hepatic lesions associated with congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs. J Comp Path. 2006;134:80-90.
  2. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJV, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:430,436-438.
  3. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ.  Liver and biliary system.  In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Ltd; 2016:266-267,289-292.    
  4. Isobe K, Matsunaga S, Nakayama H, Uetsuka K. Histopathological characteristics of hepatic lipogranulomas with portosystemic shunt in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70(2):133-138.
  5. Hunt GB, Luff JA, Daniel L, Van den Bergh R. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts Using oil red O staining. Vet Pathol. 2013; 50(6):1109-1115.
  6. Kinde H, Pesavento PA, Loretti AP, Adaska JM, Barr BC, Moore JD, Anderson ML, Rimoldi G, Hill AE, Jones ME. Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in California: 11 cases (1999-2012). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Jan;26(1):173-177
  7. Szatamari V, Rothuizen J. Ultrasonographic identification and characterization of congenital portosystemic shungs and portal hypertensive disorders in dogs and cats. In: WSAVA Liver Standardization Group, eds. WSAVA Standards for Clinical and Histological Diagnosis of Canine and Feline Liver Diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2006:15-39.
  8. Weisse C, Berent AC. Hepatic vascular anomalies. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, Cote, E. eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Vol 2. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1639-1658.


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