SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

November 2016

I-V12 (NP)

 

Signalment: (JPC ML 21474-30 & 21474-31):  Dog, breed and age unspecified.

HISTORY: This tissue is from the footpad and nose of a dog that had anorexia, diarrhea, and pneumonia.  Central nervous signs were seen agonally.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Slide 1: Junction of haired skin and footpad:  Diffusely affecting the footpad epidermis and extending to adjacent haired skin, there is marked parakeratotic hyperkeratosis (up to 1.5 mm thick).  Within the epidermis there is irregular acanthosis with hyperplasia of the basal layer and frequent mitoses (1/HPF).  Numerous keratinocytes contain multiple, round to irregular‑shaped, 4‑15um, homogeneous, eosinophilic, intracytoplasmic and rarely similar intranuclear viral inclusions.  Multifocally, primarily within the stratum spinosum, there are swollen keratinocytes that have vacuolated cytoplasm (intracellular edema) and there are rare scattered multinucleated epithelial cells with up to 6 nuclei (syncytial cells).  Within the underlying dermal papillae and superficial dermis, there is occasional pigmentary incontinence.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Skin, footpad:  Hyperkeratosis, parakeratotic, diffuse, moderate, with multifocal intracellular edema, epithelial viral syncytia, and intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions, breed unspecified, canine.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Slide 2:  Mucocutaneous junction, nasal planum:  Epidermal changes are similar to those in the footpad.  There are rare intracorneal pustules containing few degenerate neutrophils and eosinophilic homogeneous material (serum).  There are few superficial cocci. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Mucocutaneous junction, nasal planum, epidermis:  Hyperkeratosis, parakeratotic, diffuse, moderate, with multifocal intracellular edema, epithelial viral syncytia, intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions, and intra-corneal  pustules, breed unspecified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Morbilliviral footpad hyperkeratosis

CAUSE:  Canine morbillivirus (canine distemper virus (CDV))

CONDITION:  Canine distemper

SYNONYMS:  Hard pad disease, Carre's Disease

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

 TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

 TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

 ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS (for cutaneous lesions):

 COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

  References:

  1. Cantile C, Youssef S. Cytopathology of nervous tissue. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2016: 384-385.
  2. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:574-576.
  3. Craig LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Structure and function of bone tissue. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2016: 104-105.
  4. Deem SL, Spellman LH, Yates RA, et. al. Canine distemper in terrestrial carnivores: a review. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000;31(4):441-451.
  5. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2016: 545-546.
  6. Greene CE, Appel MJ. Canine distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:25-41.
  7. Grone A, Doherr M, Zurbriggen A. Canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad epidermis. Vet Dermatol. 2004;15:159-167.
  8. Grone A, Doherr M, Zurbriggen A. Up-regulation of cytokeratin expression in canine distemper virus-infected canine footpad epidermis. Vet Dermatol. 2004;15:168-174.
  9. Grone A, Engelhardt P, Zurbriggen A. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:574-578.
  10. Koutinas AF, Baumgarnter D, Tontis Z, et. al. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of canine distemper virus-induced footpad hyperkeratosis (hard pad disease) in dogs with natural canine distemper. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:2-9.
  11. Murphy FA, Gibbs EPJ, Horzinek MC, et. al. Veterinary Virology. 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1999:167-169.
  12. Origgi FC, Sattler U, Pilo P, Waldvogel AS. Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata). Vet Pathol. 2013;50(5):914-920.
  13. Pope JP, Miller MC, Riley EA, Wilkes RP. Characterization of a novel canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016;28(5):505-513.
  14. Scott DW, Miller Jr. WH, Griffin CE. Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co; 2001:523-524.
  15. Techangamsuwan S, Banlunara W, Radtanakatikanon A, Sommanustweechai A, Siriaroonrat B, Lombardini ED, Rungsipipat A. Pathological and molecular virologic characterization of a canine distemper outbreak in farmed civets. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(4):724-31.
  16. Townsell MY, Pohlman LM, Harkin KR. Pathology in Practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015;246(6):613-615.
  17. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2016: 225-226.


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