JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
April 2019
C-B03 (NP)

SIGNALMENT (NCAH08-1): 6-year-old multiparous Holstein cow (Bos taurus)

HISTORY:  Four days after calving the cow developed watery stool that continued for 2 weeks, accompanied by weight loss and decreased in body condition. 20 days after calving it was unable to rise from sternal recumbence and was euthanized.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Heart: The endocardium is diffusely expanded up to 1mm by collagen and fibroblasts (fibrosis) with multifocal accumulation of basophilic, granular material (mineral) and mineralized collagen fibers, which multifocally extend into the subendocardial myocardium, separating and surrounding bundles of cardiac myocytes. Subendocardial myocytes are occasionally swollen with sarcoplasmic vacuolation and enlarged, rectangular nuclei (degeneration), or rarely shrunken and hypereosinophilic with fragmented sarcoplasm, loss of cross striations and occasional mineralization (necrosis). Multifocally, myocytes are expanded by an intracytoplasmic, round to oval protozoal cyst measuring up to 40 um in diameter with a 4 um thick, eosinophilic capsule, containing numerous, up to 10 um, basophilic, crescent-shaped bradyzoites.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:

  1. Heart: Endocardial mineralization and fibrosis, diffused, marked, with myocardial degeneration, necrosis and mineralization, Holstein, bovine (Bos taurus).
  2. Heart, myocardium: Sarcocysts, multifocal. 

DISEASE NAME: Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Mycobacterial associated endocardial mineralization

CAUSE: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS LESIONS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC LESIONS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Balseiro A, Garcia Marin JF, Solano P, Garrido JM, Prieto JM. Histopathological classification of lesions observed in natural cases of paratuberculosis in free-ranging fallow deer (Dama dama). J Comp Path. 2008; 138: 180-188.
  2. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone marrow, blood cells, and the lymphoid/lymphatic system. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis for Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:791-792, 797.
  3. Fernandez M, Benavides J, Castano P, Elguezabal N, et al. Macrophage subsets within granulomatous intestinal lesions in bovine paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol. 2017;54(1):82-93.
  4. Gonzalez J, Geijo MV, Garcia-Pariente C, Verna A, Corpa JM, L. E. Reyes LE, Ferreras MC, Juste RA, Garcia Marin JF, Perez V. Histopathological classification of lesions associated with natural paratuberculosis infection in cattle. J Comp Path. 2005; 133: 184–196.
  5. Krüger C, Köhler H, Liebler-Tenorio EM. Sequential development of lesions 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after experimental infection of goat kids with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52(2): 276-290.
  6. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular system and lymphatic vessels. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis for Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:594-595.
  7. Robinson WF, Robinson NA. Cardiovascular system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:61.
  8. Smith SL, Wilson PR, Collette MG, Heuer C, et al. Liver biopsy histopathology for diagnosis of Johne’s disease in sheep. Vet Pathol. 2014; 51(5):915-918.
  9. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:194-197.
  10. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial disease. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis for Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:162-163.


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