JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
October 2018
D-V02

Signalment (B10-10951):  Tissue from a puppy

HISTORY: Unknown

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Small intestine: Diffusely and circumferentially intestinal villi are fused and blunted, with a multifocal loss of mucosal architecture. In areas where mucosal architecture is still intact, the lamina propria is expanded up to 1x normal by increased clear space (mucosal edema). There are multifocal ulcerations of the mucosa, characterized by a loss of enterocytes and replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (necrosis) admixed with fibrin, hemorrhage, edema, moderate numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells and fewer viable and degenerate neutrophils. This inflammatory infiltrate extends into the lamina propria and through the muscularis mucosa into the submucosa. Similar necrotic debris, hemorrhage, fibrin and inflammatory cells multifocally replace or widely separate normal crypts.  Remaining crypts often exhibit one of the following changes: single cell necrosis, characterized by shrunken, hypereosinophilic epithelial cells with pyknotic or karyorrhectic nuclei, or pseudocarcinomatous crypt hyperplasia characterized by piling up of disorganized enterocytes with cytoplasmic basophilia and large, crowded, vesiculate nuclei with prominent nucleoli and frequent mitoses, or crypts that are dilated with flattened attenuated epithelium. Scattered remaining crypt epithelial cells contain 4x6um polygonal eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies that marginate the chromatin. Within Peyer’s patches, there is marked germinal center lymphoid depletion and remaining lymphocytes are hypereosinophilic with pyknotic, karyorrhectic or karyolytic nuclei (lymphocytolysis) and multifocal infiltration by macrophages and occasional degenerate neutrophils.  There is transmural congestion and edema.  Multifocally, few basophilic bacilli are adhered to the apical villar surface.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Small intestine:  Enteritis, necrotizing, diffuse, severe, with villar blunting and fusion, crypt hyperplasia, lymphoid depletion with lymphocytolysis, and intranuclear viral inclusions, breed unspecified, canine.

CAUSE:  Canine parvovirus - 2 (CPV 2)

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Parvoviral enteritis

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

DIAGNOSIS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016:17-19, 122-124, 175-176, 259.
  2. Boes KM, Durham AC. Bone Marrow, Blood Cells, and the Lymphoid/Lymphatic System. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th Elsevier Mosby; 2017:801.
  3. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Ltd; 2016:527.
  4. Ford J, McEndaffer L, Renshaw R, Molesan A, Kelly K. Parvovirus infection is associated with myocarditis and myocardial fibrosis in young dogs. Vet Pathol; 2017;54(6):964-971.
  5. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular System and Lymphatic Vessels. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th Elsevier Mosby; 2017:609.
  6. Schlafer DH, Foster RA. Female Genital System. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Ltd; 2016:429.
  7. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM. Alimentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Ltd; 2016:153-158.
  8. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of Microbial Infections. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Elsevier Mosby; 2017:205-206, 216-217, 226-227.


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