JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
April 2019
M-V02

Signalment (JPC# 1764737):  Adult crossbred goat

HISTORY: None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Joint capsule:  The synovial membrane is thickened up to 5 times normal and forms numerous wide papillary villar projections.  Villi are hypertrophic and edematous and expanded by eosinophilic fibrillar to beaded material (fibrin), fibrous connective tissue and dense (rarely nodular) inflammatory infiltrates composed of many plasma cells and lymphocytes, fewer macrophages and rare multinucleated giant cells and neutrophils.  Villi often have a superficial layer of hyalinized fibrin covering or just under to the synovium that is multifocally surrounded by a few fibroblasts and collagen (fibrosis).  Multifocally, synovial lining cells are plump and pile up to four cells thick (hypertrophy and hyperplasia).  Within the fibrous joint capsule, blood vessels are lined by hypertrophied endothelium and are surrounded by a few plasma cells and lymphocytes.  There are scattered small hemorrhages and a small focus of mineralization in the joint capsule.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Joint capsule:  Synovitis, proliferative and lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse, moderate, crossbreed goat, caprine.

ETIOLOGY:  Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV); small ruminant lentivirus subgroup B

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lentiviral synovitis

CONDITION:  Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

 

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Campbell RSF, Robinson WF. The comparative pathology of the lentiviruses. J Comp Pathol. 1998;119:333-395.
  2. Cantile C, Youssef S. Nervous system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:378-379.
  3. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:558-560.
  4. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH, Grunberg W. Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats, and Horses. 11th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:1253-1256.
  5. Craig LE, Dittmer KE, Thompson KG. Bones and joints. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:154-155.
  6. Grossi P, Giudice C, Bertoletti I, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the p27 capsid protein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in bone-marrow cells of seropositive goats. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:197-200.
  7. Highland MA. Small ruminant Lentiviruses: strain variation, viral tropism, and host genetics influence pathogenesis. Vet Pathol. 2017;54(3):353-354.
  8. Lechner F, Machado J, Bertoni G, Seow HF, Dobbelaere DA, Peterhans E. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages. J Virol. 1997;71:7488-7497.
  9. Lopez A, Martinson SA. Respiratory system, medistinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:537-538.
  10. Patton KM, Bildfell RJ, Anderson ML, Cebra CK, Valentine BA. Fatal caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). J Vet Diag Invest. 2012;24(2):392-396.
  11. Perez M, Biescas E, Reina R, Glaria I, Marin B, et al. Small ruminant lentivirus-induced arthritis: Clinicopathologic Findings in Sheep Infected by a Highly Replicative SRLV B2 Genotype. Vet Pathol. 2014; January 29, 2014 online: 1-8.
  12. Gayo E, Polledo L, Balseiro A, Martinez CP, et al. Inflammatory lesion patterns in target organs of Visna/Maedi in sheep and their significance in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the infection. J Comp Pathol. 2018;159:49-56.
  13. Sharmila C, Williams JW, Reddy PG. Effect of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on expression of interleukin-16 in goats. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:1418-1422.
  14. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infection. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:224.


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