JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

September 2016

I-M08

 

Signalment (JPC# 2017878):  One-day-old Angus-cross calf

HISTORY:  The entire skin had a thick horny epidermis that was divided into large plates by deep fissures.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin:  Diffusely the stratum corneum is severely thickened (up to 2 mm) by laminated anuclear keratin (orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis), which entraps hair shafts; the follicular epithelium is also mildly hyperkeratotic.  The subcorneal epidermis is mildly hyperplastic forming projections that interdigitate with the corneal layer (papillated hyperplasia).  Keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum and spinosum are occasionally degenerate with indistinct cell borders and a prominent perinuclear clear vacuole.  Several follicles are mildly ectatic with loss of hair shafts, while hair follicles within the deeper dermis often appear dysplastic.  The superficial dermis is mildly expanded by increased clear space (edema) and contains low numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.  Diffusely, there is sebaceous gland atrophy.  Many apocrine glands are ectatic and lined by attenuated epithelium. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin, epidermis and follicular epithelium:  Hyperkeratosis, orthokeratotic, diffuse, severe, with sebaceous gland atrophy, Angus‑cross, bovine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Hereditary congenital hyperkeratosis

CAUSE:  Autosomal recessive genetic defect (presumed)

CONDITION:  Ichthyosis fetalis

SYNONYM:  Fish scale disease

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

Cattle (both forms inherited as simple autosomal recessive traits):

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: 

 COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

 REFERENCES: 

  1. Charney V, Toth B. et al. Pathology in practice: Icthyosis in an alpaca J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013; 243:1701-1703.
  2. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK. Diseases of the epidermis. In: Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. Ames, IA:Blackwell; 2005:174-179.
  3. Gruber R, Sugarman J, et al. Sebaceous gland, hair shaft, and epidermal barrier abnormalities in keratosis pilaris with and without filaggrin deficiency. Am J Pathol. 2015; 185:1012-1021.
  4. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. The integument. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO:Mosby Elsevier; 2012:1229-1230.
  5. Hoffmann A, Metzger J, et al. Congenital ichthyosis in 14 Great Dane puppies with a new presentation. Vet Pathol. 2016; 53:614-620.
  6. Lazar AJF, Murphy GF. The skin. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Saunders Elsevier; 2010:1186.
  7. Mauldin EA, Credille KM, Dunstan RW, Casal ML. The clinical and morphologic features of nonepidermolytic ichthyosis in the golden retriever. Vet Pathol. 2008;45:174-180.
  8. Mauldin E, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier; 2016:531-532.
  9. Mauldin E, Wang P. et al. Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in American bulldogs is associated with NIPAL4 (ICHTHTIN) deficiency. Vet Pathol. 2015; 52:654-662.
  10. Molteni L, Dardano S, Parma P, Polli M, DeGiovanni AM, Sironi G, Longeri M. Ichthyosis in Chianina cattle. Vet Rec. 2006;158:412-414.
  11. Scott DW. Congenital and hereditary diseases. In: Large Animal Dermatology. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1988:339-341.
  12. Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE. Congenital and hereditary defects. In: Muller & Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA:WB Saunders Co; 2001:922-925.


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