JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
URINARY SYSTEM
February 2018
U-V07 (NP)

Signalment (JPC # 2019293):  Two-year-old, female Yorkshire Terrier

HISTORY:  This dog was debilitated with labored respiration and a low-grade, persistent fever. 

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Urinary bladder:  Diffusely transitional epithelial cells are swollen, have increased cytoplasmic clear space and vesiculate nuclei (degeneration) and contain one or more 2-6 micron round, eosinophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic viral inclusions.  Rarely, individual epithelial cells are necrotic, characterized by shrunken hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and nuclear pyknosis.

Lung:  Affecting approximately 60% of this section are multifocal areas of necrosis characterized by loss of alveolar architecture and replacement by eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris.  Remaining alveoli are often filled with fibrin, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, sloughed epithelium, and cellular debris.  Alveolar septa are expanded up to 5 times normal by fibrin, edema, moderate numbers of macrophages, fewer neutrophils and lymphocytes and are occasionally lined by cuboidal pneumocytes (type II pneumocyte hyperplasia).  Multifocally there is necrosis of bronchiolar epithelium and remaining epithelium is often attenuated.  Multifocally bronchiolar  epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and type II pneumocytes contain variably sized (2-6 um), round, brightly eosinophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic viral inclusions.  Respiratory epithelial cells occasionally coalesce and form viral syncytia.  Occasionally interstitial and alveolar macrophages contain numerous 2-3 um round basophilic, intracytoplasmic protozoal tachyzoites.  Multifocally peribronchiolar and perivascular connective tissue is mildly expanded by fibrin, edema, macrophages, fewer neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: 

  1. Urinary bladder, transitional epithelium: Degeneration and necrosis, diffuse, with intraepithelial eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear viral inclusions, etiology consistent with canine Morbillivirus, Yorkshire terrier, canine
  1. Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, severe, with syncytia and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear viral inclusions, etiology consistent with canine Morbillivirus, and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites, etiology consistent with Toxoplasma gondii

 ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:

  1. Morbilliviral transitional epithelial necrosis
  2. Morbilliviral pneumonia and pulmonary toxoplasmosis

ETIOLOGY: Canine Morbillivirus; Toxoplasma gondii

SYNONYMS: Canine distemper; Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS:

CLINICAL SIGNS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS: 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:   

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

DISEASE NATURAL HOSTS EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION

Measles

Human; NHP

Macaque; marmoset; mouse; hamster; rat

Rinderpest

Cattle; pig; goat; sheep; buffalo; warthog; wildebeest; others

Goat; cattle; pig; deer

Peste des petits ruminants

Goat; sheep; gazelle; ibex; gemsbok

Goat; cattle; pig; deer

Phocine distemper

Seal

Dog; mink; seal

Canine distemper virus

Seal; Canidae; Mustelidae; Procyonidae (raccoon, coati, etc); Felidae; Suidae;

Dog; mouse; rat; hamster; mink; pig; cat; NHP; ferret

Dolphin morbillivirus

Dolphin

Cattle; sheep; goat; dog

Porpoise morbillivirus

Porpoise

Cattle; sheep; goat; dog

 

References: 

  1. Caswell JL, Williams KJ. Respiratory system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed.St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:5
  2. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. Urinary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016: 389, 448.
  3. Green CE, Appel MJ: Canine distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. ed. 3rd ed. St. Loius: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:25-41.
  4. Hoskins JD: Canine Viral Diseases. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 7th ed., vol. 1.  Loius, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:960-962.
  5. Kapil S, Allison RW, Johnston L, Murray BL, Holland S, Meinkoth J, Johnson B. Canine distemper virus strains circulating among North American dogs. Clin & Vaccine Immun 2008;15:707-712.
  6. Lopez A, Martinson SA: Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: 545.6.
  7. MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ. Fenner’s Veterinary Virology. 4th ed. London, UK: Academic Press; 2017: 345-348.
  8. Murphy FA, Gibbs EPJ, Horzinek MC, Studdert MJ. Veterinary Virology. 3rd ed. London, England: Academic Press; 1999:35,425-426.
  9. Pope JP, Miller DL, Riley MC, Anis E, Wilkes RP. Characterization of a novel Canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016 Sep;28(5):506-13.
  10. Qiu W, Zheng Y, Zhang S, et al. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1541-1543.
  11. Techangamsuwan S, Banlunara W, Radtanakatikanon A, Sommanustweechai A, Siriaroonrat B, Lombardini ED, Rungsipipat A. Pathologic and Molecular Virologic Characterization of a Canine Distemper Outbreak in Farmed Civets. Vet Pathol. 2015 Jul;52(4):724-31.
  12. Wenzlow N, Plattet P, Wittek R, Zurbriggen A, Groene A. Immunohistochemical demonstration of the putative canine distemper virus receptor CD150 in dogs with and without distemper. Vet Pathol 2007;44:943-948.
  13. Williams ES: Canine distemper. In: Williams ES, Barker IK, eds. Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2001:50-55.
  14. Zachary JF. Mechanisms of microbial infections. In: Zachary JF. ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:225-226.


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