JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

October 2013

I-M23

 

Signalment (JPC #21474-25):  Adult dog

HISTORY:  Plaque-like lesion from the dorsum of the neck of a dog with bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of the trunk.

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin:  Diffusely, deep dermal collagen fibers are hypereosinophilic, fragmented, disrupted, or effaced by deposits of deeply basophilic, angular material (mineral), which extends into the subcutis and is surrounded by variable amounts of fibrin, necrotic debris, moderate numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and few foreign-body type multinucleated giant cells.  Follicular infundibula and other regions of outer root sheath are moderately dilated and expanded with lamellated keratin and keratin debris (comedones), frequently containing fragmented hair shafts and lined by thin, attenuated epithelium.  There is an absence of hair follicles in anagen phase; most appear to be in telogen with prominent tricholemmal keratin, inconspicuous dermal papillae and termination in the superficial dermis (physiologic atrophy/hair growth cycle arrest).  Hair follicles are markedly smaller than normal, reduced to a small aggregate of hair bulb cells (true follicular atrophy) and surrounded by fibrosis.  There is an overall paucity of arrector pili muscles and sebaceous glands; when present, they appear smaller than normal.  Apocrine glands are moderately ectatic.  There is diffuse, mild orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with rare intracorneal pustules and multifocal epidermal thinning to as few as one to two cells. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin:  Dermal mineralization (calcinosis cutis), diffuse, moderate, with granulomatous dermatitis, epidermal and follicular atrophy, hair growth cycle arrest, and comedones, breed not specified, canine.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Endocrine dermatopathy

CONDITION:  Hyperadrenocorticism

SYNONYMS:  Cushing’s syndrome or disease; hyperglucocorticoidism

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

Horses: 

Cats:

Ferrets:

REFERENCES:

  1. Baktavatchalu V, Muthapalani S, et al. Endocrinopathy and Aging in Ferrets.  Vet Pathol.  2016; 53(2):349-365.
  2. Ferguson DC, Hoenig M. Endocrine system. In: Latimer, KS, ed. Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011:317-323.
  3. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, et. al. Atrophic diseases of the adnexa. In: Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK, eds. Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2005:484-490.
  4. Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, et. al. Degenerative, dysplastic and depositional diseases of dermal connective tissue. In: Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK, eds. Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2005:373-377.
  5. Hargis AM, Ginn, PE. The integument. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:1060-1061.
  6. La Perle KMD. Endocrine system. In: Zachary JF, McGavin MD, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:672-675.
  7. Maitra A. The Endocrine system. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, et. al., eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:1123-1125.
  8. Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2016: 588-589.
  9. Park FM, Blois LS, Abrams-Ogg ACG, et. al. Hypercoagulability and ACTH-Dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(5):1136-1142.
  10. Rosenthal KL, Wyre NR. Endocrine diseases. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:86-91.
  11. Rosol TJ, Groene A. Endocrine glands. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 3. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2015:337-348.


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