JPC Systemic Pathology
Cardiovascular System
April 2019
C-M06 (NP)

SIGNALMENT (JPC #2077171):  3-month-old crossbred pig

HISTORY:  None

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Heart: Affecting 30% of the myocardium, there are multifocal to coalescing, large intersecting bands of coagulative necrosis characterized by loss of differential staining and retention of architecture, admixed with less frequent foci of lytic necrosis characterized by stromal collapse and loss of myofibers with replacement by cellular debris, fibrin, edema, and infiltrates of macrophages, hemosiderophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and occasional eosinophils and scattered hemorrhage.  Areas of lytic necrosis often surround areas of coagulative necrosis.  Within areas of coagulative necrosis, necrotic cardiac myocytes have fragmented, hypereosinophilic sarcoplasm with loss of cross striations and pyknotic or karyorrhectic nuclei.  Necrotic myofibers often contain basophilic granular mineral.  Less commonly, myocytes are degenerate with swollen, vacuolated sarcoplasm.  Multifocally there is vascular necrosis affecting the tunica media and tunica intima, characterized by disruption, vacuolation, and hypereosinophilia of the smooth muscle fibers with replacement by brightly eosinophilic, hyaline material (fibrinoid necrosis) and discontinuity of endothelium.  Lesser affected, viable blood vessels are lined by hypertrophic/reactive endothelium and are surrounded by edema and low numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Heart, myocardium: Degeneration and necrosis, monophasic, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, with multifocal fibrinoid vascular necrosis, mild lymphohistiocytic myocarditis, myocardial mineralization, and multifocal hemorrhage, crossbreed, porcine

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Nutritional cardiac degeneration and necrosis

CAUSE:  Vitamin E/Selenium deficiency

CONDITION:  Mulberry heart disease (MHD)

CONDITION SYNONYMS:  Dietetic microangiopathy

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

Dietary microangiopathy:

Lesions in other organs:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Causes of myocardial necrosis:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Barthold SW, Griffey SM, Percy DH. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2016: 193, 241, 315.
  2. Brown DL, Van Wettere AJV, Cullen JM. Hepatobiliary system and exocrine pancreas. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:458-459, 464.
  3. Cooper BJ, Valentine BA. Muscle and tendon.  In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:214-218.
  4. Crispo M, Palmieri C, Shivaprasad HL. Myopathy of the pipping muscles, hepatosis dietetica, and cataracts in emu chicks (Dromaius novaehollandiae).  Vet Pathol.  2016;53(6):1248-1251.
  5. Cullen JM, Stalker MJ. Liver and biliary system.  In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:284-285.
  6. Gelberg HB. Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:373..
  7. Julian RJ, Boulianne M. Necropsy of the fowl.  In: Boulianne M., ed. Avian Disease Manual. 7th Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists; 2013:272.
  8. Miller LM, Gal A. Cardiovascular system and lymphatic vessels. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:607-608.
  9. Shivaprasad HL. Nutritional diseases.  In: Boulianne M., ed. Avian Disease Manual. 7th Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Avian Pathologists; 2013:185-187.
  10. Valentine BA. Skeletal muscle. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:925, 935, 943, 945.


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