JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
January 2019
E-M05 (NP)

Signalment (JPC #2677977):  4-year-old castrated male German shorthair pointer dog 

HISTORY:  Tissue from a dog with chronic weight loss, azotemia, and hyperkalemia. 

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Adrenal gland:  Diffusely, the cortex is reduced to a thin rim of tissue with loss of the distinct radial arrangement of cells within all zones, and retention of remnants of stromal elements including thin strands of supporting fibrous connective tissue and blood vessels.  The capsule is thickened up to 2-3x normal by fibrous connective tissue that is accentuated by subjacent cortical stromal collapse.  The cortex is infiltrated by moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and fewer eosinophils admixed with hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema.  Macrophages often have microvacuolated cytoplasm and intracytoplasmic golden brown, granular pigment (hemosiderin).  There are multifocal clusters of remaining zona reticularis cells with foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm (lipoidal degeneration).

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Adrenal gland, cortex:  Atrophy and loss, diffuse, severe, with lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic adrenalitis, German shorthair pointer, canine.

CONDITION:  Primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease)

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS:

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS:

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY:

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

For hyperkalemia:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY:

REFERENCES:

  1. Bell R, et al. Calcium metabolism in eight dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. 2009; 50(8):426-430.
  2. Boretti F, Meyer F, Burkhardt W. Evaluation of the cortisol-to-ACTH ratio in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism, dogs with disease mimicking hypoadrenocorticism and in healthy dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2015; 29:1335-13341.
  3. Capen CC. Endocrine glands. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals, Vol 3. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: 339-342.
  4. Dunn KJ, Herrtage ME. Hypocortisolemia in a Labrador retriever. J Sm Anim Pract. 1998; 39:90-93.
  5. Famula TR, Belanger JM, Oberbauer AM. Heritability and complex segregation analysis of hypoadrenocorticism in the standard poodle. J Sm Anim Pract. 2003; 44:8-12.
  6. Ferguson DC, Hoenig M. Endocrine system. In: Latimer KS, ed., Duncan & Prasse's Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 5th ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 2003:295, 318-319.
  7. Frank CB, Valentin S. Correlation of inflammation with adrenocortical atrophy in canine adrenalitis. J Comp Pathol. 2013; 149: 268-279.
  8. Hanson J, Tenqvall K. Naturally occurring adrenocortical insufficiency- an epidemiological study based on a Swedish-insured dog population of 525,028 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2016; 30: 76-84.
  9. Jones TC, Hunt RD, King NW. Veterinary Pathology, 6th ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins;1997:1246-1247.
  10. Labelle P, DeCock HEV. Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol. 2005; 42:52-58.
  11. Langlais-Burgess L, Lumsden JH, Mackin A. Concurrent hypoadrenocorticism and hypoalbuminemia in dogs: a retrospective study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1995; 31(4):307-311.
  12. Miller MA. Endocrine system. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:701, 708.


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