JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

Respiratory System

October 2017

P-V05

 

Signalment (GV-5):  Mouse; age, gender, and strain unknown

HISTORY:   Dyspnea of unknown duration

HISTOPATHOLOGIC  DESCRIPTION:  Lung, multiple sections: Affecting up to 95% of the section, alveolar septa are expanded up to 10x normal diameter by an inflammatory infiltrate composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fewer neutrophils as well as abundant fibrin and edema.  Multifocally, alveolar septa are discontinuous and replaced with cellular and karyorrhectic debris (alveolar septal necrosis).  Multifocally, alveoli contain eosinophilic fluid (edema), and in severely affected areas, alveolar lumina contain an exudate composed of the previously described inflammatory cells.  Multifocally, terminal airways and alveoli are lined by hyperplastic cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells with large vesiculate nuclei, 1-3 distinct nucleoli, and frequent mitotic figures which form dense clusters or papillary projections (atypical type II pneumocyte hyperplasia), and occasional multinucleate syncytial cells with up to 20 nuclei.  Bronchiolar epithelium is similarly hyperplastic with tightly packed tall columnar cells piled up to 5 cell layers deep.  Rarely, hyperplastic epithelia contain 1-3 um eosinophilic intracytoplasmic viral inclusions.  Occasionally, bronchiolar epithelium is lost (ulcerated) or attenuated with intraluminal exudate composed of low to moderate numbers of foamy macrophages and neutrophils, necrotic debris, fibrin, and edema.  Multifocally, peribronchial and peribronchiolar lymphoid tissue is mildly hyperplastic (BALT hyperplasia) and there is infiltration of lymphocytes in the perivascular interstitium and dilated lymphatics.

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Lung:  Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic, subacute, multifocal, moderate with atypical type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, respiratory epithelial hyperplasia and syncytia, and rare eosinophilic intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies, strain unspecified, mouse, rodent.

ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Sendai viral pneumonia

CAUSE:   Sendai virus

SYNONYMS:  Murine parainfluenza virus-1

GENERAL DISCUSSION:

PATHOGENESIS

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS

ULTRASTRUCTURE   

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY

REFERENCES

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  2. Brabb T, Di Giacomo RF. Viral diseases (rabbit).  In: Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP.  The laboratory rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, and other rodents. 1st ed.  London, UK: Elsevier; 2012:399.
  3. Brabb T, Newsome D, Burich A, Hanes M. Infectious diseases (guinea pigs).  In: Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP.  The laboratory rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, and other rodents. 1st ed.  London, UK: Elsevier; 2012:644.
  4. Cassano A, Rasmussen S, Wolf FR. Viral diseases (hamster).  In: Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP.  The laboratory rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, and other rodents. 1st ed.  London, UK: Elsevier; 2012:828-830.
  5. Castleman WL, Northrop PJ, McAllister PK. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.  Am J Pathol. 1989;134(5):1135-1142.
  6. Cheville NF, Lehmkuhl H. Cytopathology of viral diseases.  In: Cheville NF.  Ultrastructural pathology, the comparative cellular basis of disease. 2nd ed.  Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009:360.
  7. Jacoby RO, Gaertner DJ. Viral disease.  In: The laboratory rat.  2nd ed.  Burlington, MA: Elsevier; 2006: 424-425, 442-443.
  8. Yarto-Jaramillo E.   In: Miller RE, Fowler ME.  Fowler’s zoo and wild animal medicine. Vol. 8.  St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015: 412.


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