JPC SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

October 2016

I-N17

 

Signalment (JPC# 2075587):  Horse

HISTORY:  Dermal mass from the tibial region at the site of a previous wire cut injury

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION:  Haired skin, tibial region (per contributor):  Infiltrating the superficial dermis and elevating the overlying ulcerated and moderately hyperplastic epidermis is a 15 x 7 mm well-circumscribed, unencapsulated, moderately cellular, pedunculated neoplasm composed of spindle cells haphazardly arranged in short, interlacing bundles and whorls, and occasional streams on a moderate collagenous matrix.  Neoplastic cells have indistinct borders, a moderate amount of fibrillar, pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, oval to elongate vesiculate nuclei with one variably distinct nucleolus.  There is mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis.  The mitotic rate is regionally variable averaging 1 per 10 HPF with up to 3 per HPF.  Multifocally, neoplastic cells are arranged perpendicularly to the dermal-epidermal junction.  The overlying ulcerated epidermis is replaced by a serocellular crust composed of many degenerate neutrophils, fibrin, hemorrhage, necrotic debris, and numerous colonies of cocci. The hyperplastic epidermis at the margin, adjacent to the ulcerated epidermis, is characterized by long, thin, branching rete ridges which dive into the neoplasm, acanthosis, spongiosis, and mild parakeratotic hyperkeratosis. 

MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Haired skin, tibial region (per contributor):  Sarcoid, breed not specified, equine.

CAUSE:  Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 are associated

CONDITION:  Equine sarcoid

GENERAL DISCUSSION: 

PATHOGENESIS: 

TYPICAL CLINICAL FINDINGS: 

TYPICAL GROSS FINDINGS:

Six different types are identifiable grossly:

TYPICAL LIGHT MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS:

ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

Grossly:

Microscopically:

COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY: 

Papillomavirus-associated tumors:

Papilloma viruses associated with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic skin lesions in animals (adapted from Munday and Kiupel)

Animal species Skin lesion Papillomavirus

Cat

Feline viral plaque progressing to Bowenoid carcinoma in situ

FdPV-1, -2

Cat

SCC

FdPV-2

Cat, lion

Feline sarcoid

SeSarPV

Dog

Canine pigmented viral plaque progressing to ISC and SCC

CfPV-3, -4

Dog

Endophytic papilloma and SCC in immunosuppressed dogs

CfPV-2

Dog

Vaccine-induced cutaneous SCC

COPV

Horse

Equine sarcoid

BPV-1, -2, -13

Horse

Genital papilloma, in situ and invasive SCC

EcPV2

Horse

Undiagnosed penile mass

EcPV7

Rabbit

Cutaneous SCC

CRPV

Western barred Bandicoot

Cutaneous SCC

BPCV-1

Egyptian fruit bat

Basosquamous carcinoma

RaPV-1

Natal multimammate mouse

Keratoacanthoma and SCC

MnPV

European harvest mouse

Sebaceous carcinoma

MmPV


FdPV, Felis domesticus papillomavirus; CfPV, Canis familiaris papillomavirus; COPV, canine oral papillomavirus; BPV, bovine papillomavirus; CRPV, cotton-tail rabbit papillomavirus; RaPV, rousettus aegyptiacus papillomavirus type I; MnPV, Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus; EcPV2, Equine papillomavirus 2

REFERENCES: 

  1. Bogaert l, Van Heerden M, De Cock HEV, Martens A, Chiers K. Molecular and immunohistochemical distinction of equine sarcoid from schwannoma. Vet Pathol. 2011; 48(3):737-741.
  2. Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, O’Brien PM, Reid SWJ, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L. Association of bovine papillomavirus with the equine sarcoid. J Gen Virol. 2003; 84:1055-1062.
  3. Epperson ED, Castleman WL. Bovine papillomavirus DNA and S100 profiles in sarcoids and other cutaneous spindle cell tumors in horses. Vet Pathol. 2016; Jun 16. pii: 0300985816653169. Epub ahead of print.
  4. Gaynor AM, Zhu KW, Dela Cruz FN, Affolter VK, Pesavento PA. Localization of bovine papillomavirus nucleic acid in equine sarcoids. Vet Pathol. 2016; 53(3):567-573.
  5. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. Integument.  In: McGavin, MD, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO:Elsevier; 2012:1026-1027
  6. Hendrick MJ, Mahaffey EA, Moore FM, Vos JH, Walder EJ.  Histological Classification of Mesenchymal Tumors of Skin and Soft Tissues of Domestic Animals. Vol II. 2nd series. Washington, DC:Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1998:16.
  7. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier Saunders; 2015:285.
  8. Martens A, De Moor A, Demeulemeester J, Ducatelle R. Histopathological characteristics of five clinical types of equine sarcoid. Res Vet Sci. 2000; 69:295-300.
  9. Mauldin E, Peters-Kennedy J. Integumentary system. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier; 2016:707-710.
  10. Munday JS, Kiupel M. Papillomavirus-associated cutaneous neoplasia in mammals. Vet Pathol. 2010:47:254-264.
  11. Oliveira-Filho JP, Monteiro LN, Delfiol DJ, Sequeira JL, Amorim RM, Fabris VE, Del Piero F, Borges AS. Mycobacterium DNA detection in liver and skin of horse with generalized sarcoidosis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012; 24(3):596-600.
  12. Orbell GM, Young S, Munday JS. Cutaneous sarcoids in captive African lions associated with feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus infection. Vet Pathol. 2011; 48(6):1176-1179.
  13. Schulman FY, Krafft AE, Janczewski T. Feline cutaneous fibropapillomas: Clinicopathologic findings and association with papillomavirus infection. Vet Pathol. 2001; 38(3):291-296.
  14. Schulman FY, Krafft AE, Janczewski T, Reupert R, Jackson K, Garner MM. Camelid mucocutaneous fibropapillomas: Clinicopathologic findings in association with papillomavirus. Vet Pathol. 2003; 40:103-107.
  15. Scott DW, Miller HM: Equine Dermatology. Saunders, St Louis, MO, 2003:719-731.
  16. Slauson DO, Cooper BJ: Mechanisms of Disease: A Textbook of Comparative General Pathology. 3rd ed. Mosby, Inc., St. Louis, MO, 2002:369.
  17. Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM, Grinwis GC. Equine sarcoidosis: Clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 22 cases. Vet Dermatol. 2013; 24(1): 218-224.
  18. Wobester B. Making the diagnosis: Equine sarcoid. Vet Pathol. 2016; Aug 19. pii: 0300985816664793. Epub ahead of print.


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